By the same authors

From the same journal

From the same journal

A Family of Water Immiscible, Dipolar Aprotic, Diamide Solvents from Succinic Acid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review



Publication details

DateAccepted/In press - 27 Mar 2020
DateE-pub ahead of print (current) - 11 May 2020
Number of pages11
Early online date11/05/20
Original languageEnglish


Three dipolar aprotic solvents were designed to possess high dipolarity and low toxicity: N , N , N ', N '-tetrabutylsuccindiamide (TBSA), N , N '-diethyl- N , N '-dibutylsuccindiamide (EBSA), N , N '-dimethyl- N , N '-dibutylsuccindiamide (MBSA). They were synthesized catalytically using a K60 silica catalyst in a solventless system. Their water-immiscibility stands out as an unusual and useful property for dipolar aprotic solvents. They were tested in a model Heck reaction, metal-organic framework syntheses, and a selection of polymer solubility experiments where their performances were found to be comparable to traditional solvents. Furthermore, MBSA was found to be suitable for the production of an industrially-relevant membrane from polyethersulphone. An integrated approach involving in silico analysis based on available experimental information, prediction model outcomes and read across data, as well as a panel of in vitro reporter gene assays covering a broad range of toxicological endpoints was used to assess toxicity. These in silico and in vitro tests suggested no alarming indications of toxicity in the new solvents.

Bibliographical note

© 2020 The Authors

Discover related content

Find related publications, people, projects, datasets and more using interactive charts.

View graph of relations