OBJECTIVES : To study the outcome of composite cystoplasty using cultured urothelial cells combined with de-epithelialized colon or uterus in a porcine surgical model, using appropriate controls, and to characterize the neo-epithelium created by composite cystoplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Urothelial cells were isolated and propagated in vitro from open bladder biopsies taken from nine female minipigs. Cohesive sheets of confluent urothelial cells were transferred to polyglactin carrier meshes and sutured to de-epithelialized autologous colon in four animals and de-epithelialized autologous uterus in five. These composite segments were then used for augmentation cystoplasty. Conventional colocystoplasty, de-epithelialized colocystoplasty and sham operations were carried out in six control animals. After killing the animals at ˜ 90 days the bladders were removed for examination and immunohistochemical analysis, using a panel of antibodies against cytokeratins and urothelial differentiation-associated antigens. RESULTS : Macroscopically, the bladders augmented with composite segments derived from uterine muscle had no evidence of shrinkage or contracture. Histological analysis showed that in four of five composite uterocystoplasties, the neo-urothelium was stratified and had a transitional morphology, although in some areas coverage was incomplete. Immunohistochemical analysis showed evidence of squamous differentiation in both native and augmented segments. All composite and de-epithelialized colonic segments showed significant contraction with poor urothelial coverage, reflecting the unsuitability of the thin-walled porcine colon for de-epithelialization. CONCLUSIONS : The functional and macroscopic outcome of bladder augmentation with a composite derived from cultured urothelium and de-epithelialized smooth muscle of uterine origin endorses the feasibility of composite cystoplasty.
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- tissue engineering
- surgical model
- BLADDER RECONSTRUCTION