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A systematic review of mental health professionals, patients and carers’ perceived barriers and enablers to supporting smoking cessation in mental health settings

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JournalNicotine & tobacco research
DateAccepted/In press - 5 Jan 2022
DateE-pub ahead of print (current) - 8 Jan 2022
Early online date8/01/22
Original languageEnglish

Abstract

Introduction: Evidence-based smoking cessation and temporary abstinence interventions to address smoking in mental health settings are available, but the impact of these interventions is limited. Therefore, this review aimed to identify and synthesise the perceived barriers and enablers to supporting smoking cessation in mental health settings.

Method: Six databases were searched for articles reporting the investigation of perceived barriers and enablers to supporting smoking cessation in mental health settings. Data were extracted and coded using a mixed inductive/deductive method to the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), Key barriers and enablers were identified through the combining of coding frequency, elaboration, and expressed importance.

Results: Of thirty-one included articles, 56 barriers/enablers were reported from the
perspectives of mental healthcare professionals (MHPs), 48 from patient perspectives, 21 from mixed perspectives, and 0 from relatives/carers. Barriers to supporting smoking cessation or temporary abstinence in mental health settings mainly fell within the domains: environmental context and resources (e.g. MHPs lack of time); knowledge (e.g. interactions around smoking that did occur were ill-informed); social influences (e.g. smoking norms within social network), and intentions (e.g. MHPs lack positive intentions to deliver support). Enablers mainly fell within the domains: environmental context and resources (e.g. use of appropriate support materials) and social influences (e.g. pro-quitting social norms).

Conclusion: The importance of overcoming competing demands on staff time and
resources, the inclusion of tailored, personalised support, the exploitation of patients wider social support networks, and enhancing knowledge and awareness around the benefits smoking cessation is highlighted.

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