This letter investigates performance enhancement by the concept of multi-carrier index keying in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. For the performance evaluation, a tight closed-form approximation of the bit error rate (BER) is derived introducing the expression for the number of bit errors occurring in both the index domain and the complex domain, in the presence of both imperfect and perfect detection of active multi-carrier indices. The accuracy of the derived BER results for various cases are validated using simulations, which can provide accuracy within 1 dB at favorable channels.
- Bit error rate
- Multi-carrier index keying
- Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing