The use of activated carbon (AC) as an in situ sorbent amendment to sequester polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) present in contaminated soils and sediments has recently gained attention as a novel remedial approach. This remedy could be implemented at much lower cost while minimizing habitat destruction as compared to traditional remediation technologies that rely on dredging/excavation and landfilling. Several prior studies have demonstrated the ability of AC amendments to reduce pore water concentrations and hence bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in invertebrate species. However, our recent study was the first to show that AC had the ability to sequester 2,3,7,8‑tetrachlorodibenzo‑p‑dioxin (TCDD) in a form that eliminated bioavailability to a mammalian (mouse) model. Here we show that three commercially available ACs, representing a wide range of pore size distributions, were equally effective in eliminating the bioavailability of TCDD based upon two sensitive bioassays, hepatic induction of cyp1A1 mRNA and immunoglobulin M antibody-forming cell response. These results provide direct evidence that a wide range of structurally diverse commercially available ACs may be suitable for use as in situ sorbent amendments to provide a cost-effective remedy for PCDD/F contaminated soils and sediments. Potentially, adaption of this technology would minimize habitat destruction and be protective of ecosystem and human health.
- Immune response
- Sorbent amendments