Advancing climate compatible development: Lessons from southern Africa

Lindsay C. Stringer, Andrew J. Dougill, Jen C. Dyer, Katharine Vincent, Florian Fritzsche, Julia Leventon, Mario Paulo Falcão, Pascal Manyakaidze, Stephen Syampungani, Philip Powell, Gabriel Kalaba

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Climate compatible development (CCD) has emerged as a new concept that bridges climate change adaptation, mitigation and community-based development. Progress towards CCD requires multi-stakeholder, multi-sector working and the development of partnerships between actors who may not otherwise have worked together. This creates challenges and opportunities that require careful examination at project and institutional levels and necessitates the sharing of experiences between different settings. In this paper, we draw on the outcomes from a multi-stakeholder workshop held in Mozambique in 2012, the final in a series of activities in a regional project assessing emerging CCD partnerships across southern Africa. The workshop involved policymakers, researchers and representatives from NGOs and the private sector. We employ a content analysis of workshop notes and presentations to identify the progress and challenges in moving four case study countries (the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe) towards CCD pathways, by exploring experiences from both project and policy levels. To advance institutional support for the development of successful CCD policies, practices and partnerships, we conclude that there is a need for: (a) institutional development at the national level to strengthen coordination and more clearly define roles and responsibilities across sectors, based on the identification of capacity and knowledge gaps; (b) partnership development, drawing on key strengths and competences of different stakeholders and emphasising the roles of the private sector and traditional authorities; (c) learning and knowledge-sharing through national and regional fora; and (d) development of mechanisms that permit more equitable and transparent distribution of costs and benefits. These factors can facilitate development of multi-stakeholder, multi-level partnerships that are grounded in community engagement from the outset, helping to translate CCD policy statements into on-the-ground action.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)713-725
Number of pages13
JournalRegional Environmental Change
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2014

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
A pilot JFM initiative established by Government and funded through the Finnish International Development Agency (FINNIDA). The project aims to sustainably manage the Katanino Forest Reserve by establishing a Village Forest Management Committee and employing community forest guards (Bwalya 2007) The AFI was developed by the Lumwana Mining Company to promote economic development and diversification in surrounding communities to reduce dependence on the mine for employment and income. The project delivers training in agricultural production and has established a microfinance scheme. Activities also include research into high value crops, the promotion of dairy farming for young women and banana production (Dyer et al. 2013) The Kansanshi Foundation Conservation Farming initiative aims to provide alternative livelihood opportunities in communities around the Kansanshi Copper Mine. The project provides training in conservation farming techniques and a loan scheme for fertiliser and maize seed (Dyer et al. 2013) The KSLP aims to build a sustainable, independent economy in communities that live and work in the mine concession areas. Conservation agriculture and the introduction of agricultural extension services into the communities, an indigenous tree nursery, and rehabilitation of drilling sites, market gardens and a composting unit are the main focus of activities (Envirotrade 2011) ‘Biodiversité au Katanga’ (BAK) is an NGO whose aim is to preserve the natural heritage of Katanga. Its work focuses on environmental education and scientific research across Katanga Province and it works closely with the University of Lubumbashi and Belgian donors and research institutions to support community-level projects. Case study projects at Kipushi, Malambwe and Sambwa were studied A grassroots, community-based organisation working towards poverty reduction, economic development and social safety interventions. The organisation aims to target the poorest members of society (such as orphans) through projects that focus on agriculture and food security The Campfire Association’s flagship project, Mahenye is a community wildlife conservation and ecotourism project, which was established to reduce human–wildlife conflict around the Gonarezhou National Park. Financial benefits from trophy hunting are shared between tourism firms and the local communities An integrated food, energy and forest protection business. CleanStar are aiming to produce premium smallholder cassava as a livelihood diversification activity for use in ethanol production. They are currently piloting an ethanol stove in communities around Maputo aiming to reduce indoor pollution and urban demand for charcoal The Nhambita Community Carbon Project is located in the buffer zone of the Gorongosa National Park. The project aims both to generate carbon credits through rehabilitation of degraded forests and to provide livelihood opportunities through agro-forestry systems. The project is Plan Vivo certified (Groom and Palmer 2012)


  • Climate change
  • Adaptation
  • Mitigation
  • Southern Africa
  • Multi-sector approaches
  • Policy
  • Community-based development

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