Agreement between methods of measurement with multiple observations per individual

J. Martin Bland, Douglas G. Altman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Limits of agreement provide a straightforward and intuitive approach to agreement between different methods for measuring the same quantity. When pairs of observations using the two methods are independent, i.e., on different subjects, the calculations are very simple and straightforward. Some authors collect repeated data, either as repeated pairs of measurements on the same subject, whose true value of the measured quantity may be changing, or more than one measurement by one or both methods of an unchanging underlying quantity. In this paper we describe methods for analysing such clustered observations, both when the underlying quantity is assumed to be changing and when it is not.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)571-582
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2007

Bibliographical note

Copyright 2007 © Taylor & Francis Group. Embargo imposed by the publisher. An author produced version of this paper will be freely available from July 2008.


  • agreement
  • limits
  • measurement
  • multiple

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