An evaluation and monetary assessment of the impact of flooding on subjective well-being across genders in Vietnam

Paul Hudson*, My Pham, Philip Bubeck

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The intangible impacts of floods on welfare are not well investigated, even though they are important aspects of welfare. Moreover, flooding has gender based impacts on welfare. These differing impacts create a gender based flood risk resilience gap. We study the intangible impacts of flood risk on the subjective well-being of residents in central Vietnam. The measurement of intangible impacts through subjective well-being is a growing field within flood risk research. We find an initial drop in welfare through subjective well-being across genders when a flood is experienced. Male respondents tended to recover their welfare losses by around 80% within 5 years while female respondents were associated with a welfare recovery of around 70%. A monetization of the impacts floods have on an individual’s subjective well-being shows that for the average female respondent, between 41% to 86% of annual income would be required to compensate subjective well-being losses after 5 years of experiencing a flood. The corresponding value for males is 30% to 57% of annual income. This shows that the intangible impacts of flood risk are important (across genders) and need to be integrated into flood (or climate) risk assessments to develop more socially appropriate risk management strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)623-637
Number of pages15
JournalClimate and Development
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 20 Feb 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors acknowledge funding received from the Global Resilience Partnership (GRP) through the Water Window project’s ResilNam Coastal and ResilNam Urban as funded by the Z Zurich Foundation. The funder had no direct input on the research conducted or the ability to publish the paper.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019, © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


  • flood risk
  • gender
  • intangible impacts
  • resilience
  • Subjective well-being
  • welfare

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