The retaining endo-β-D-glucuronidase Heparanase (HPSE) is the primary mammalian enzyme responsible for breakdown of the glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate (HS). HPSE activity is essential for regulation and turnover of HS in the extracellular matrix, and its activity affects diverse processes such as inflammation, angiogenesis and cell migration. Aberrant heparanase activity is strongly linked to cancer metastasis, due to structural breakdown of extracellular HS networks and concomitant release of sequestered HS-binding growth factors. A full appreciation of HPSE activity in health and disease requires a structural understanding of the enzyme, and how it engages with its HS substrates. This chapter summarizes key findings from the recent crystal structures of human HPSE and its proenzyme. We present details regarding the 3-dimensional protein structure of HPSE and the molecular basis for its interaction with HS substrates of varying sulfation states. We also examine HPSE in a wider context against related β-D-glucuronidases from other species, highlighting the structural features that control exo/endo − glycosidase selectivity in this family of enzymes.
|Title of host publication||Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology|
|Number of pages||29|
|Publication status||Published - 2020|
|Name||Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology|
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2020, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
- Extracellular matrix
- Glycoside hydrolase
- Heparan sulfate