Analyzing Health-Related Quality of Life Data to Estimate Parameters for Cost-Effectiveness Models: An Example Using Longitudinal EQ-5D Data from the SHIFT Randomized Controlled Trial

Alison Griffiths, Noman Paracha, Andrew Davies, Neil Branscombe, Martin R Cowie, Mark John Sculpher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


INTRODUCTION: The aim of this article is to discuss methods used to analyze health-related quality of life (HRQoL) data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for decision analytic models. The analysis presented in this paper was used to provide HRQoL data for the ivabradine health technology assessment (HTA) submission in chronic heart failure.

METHODS: We have used a large, longitudinal EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D) dataset from the Systolic Heart Failure Treatment with the I f Inhibitor Ivabradine Trial (SHIFT) ( NCT02441218) to illustrate issues and methods. HRQoL weights (utility values) were estimated from a mixed regression model developed using SHIFT EQ-5D data (n = 5313 patients). The regression model was used to predict HRQoL outcomes according to treatment, patient characteristics, and key clinical outcomes for patients with a heart rate ≥75 bpm.

RESULTS: Ivabradine was associated with an HRQoL weight gain of 0.01. HRQoL weights differed according to New York Heart Association (NYHA) class (NYHA I-IV, no hospitalization: standard care 0.82-0.46; ivabradine 0.84-0.47). A reduction in HRQoL weight was associated with hospitalizations within 30 days of an HRQoL assessment visit, with this reduction varying by NYHA class [-0.07 (NYHA I) to -0.21 (NYHA IV)].

CONCLUSION: The mixed model explained variation in EQ-5D data according to key clinical outcomes and patient characteristics, providing essential information for long-term predictions of patient HRQoL in the cost-effectiveness model. This model was also used to estimate the loss in HRQoL associated with hospitalizations. In SHIFT many hospitalizations did not occur close to EQ-5D visits; hence, any temporary changes in HRQoL associated with such events would not be captured fully in observed RCT evidence, but could be predicted in our cost-effectiveness analysis using the mixed model. Given the large reduction in hospitalizations associated with ivabradine this was an important feature of the analysis.

FUNDING: The Servier Research Group.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)753-764
Number of pages12
JournalAdvances in therapy
Issue number3
Early online date15 Feb 2017
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2017

Bibliographical note

© 2017, The Author(s)


  • Aged
  • Benzazepines
  • Cardiovascular Agents
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Female
  • Heart Failure, Systolic
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Statistical
  • Quality of Life
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Journal Article
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

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