By the same authors

From the same journal

Application of bio-based solvents for biocatalysed synthesis of amides with Pseudomonas stutzeri lipase (PSL)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review



Publication details

DateE-pub ahead of print - 19 Dec 2019
DatePublished (current) - 28 Apr 2020
Issue number4
Number of pages8
Pages (from-to)579-586
Early online date19/12/19
Original languageEnglish


Bio-based solvents were investigated for the biocatalysed amidation reactions of various ester-amine combinations by Pseudomonas stutzeri lipase (PSL). Reactions were undertaken in a range of green and potentially bio-based solvents including terpinolene, p-cymene, limonene, 2-methyl THF, ɣ-valerolactone, propylene carbonate, dimethyl isosorbide, glycerol triacetate and water. Solvent screenings demonstrated the importance and potential of using non-polar bio-based solvents for favouring aminolysis over hydrolysis; whilst substrate screenings highlighted the unfavourable impact of reactants bearing bulky para- or 4-substituents. Renewable terpene-based solvents (terpinolene, p-cymene, D-limonene) were demonstrated to be suitable bio-based media for PSL amidation reactions. Such solvents could provide a greener and more sustainable alternative to traditional petrochemical derived non-polar solvents. Importantly, once the enzyme (either PSL or CALB) binds with a bulky para-substituted substrate, only small reagents are able to access the active site. This therefore limits the possibility for aminolysis to take place, thereby promoting the hydrolysis. This mechanism of binding supports the widely accepted 'Ping Pong - Bi Bi' mechanism used to describe enzyme kinetics. The work highlights the need to further investigate enzyme activity in relation to para- or 4-substituted substrates. A priority in PSL chemistry remains a methodology to tackle the competing hydrolysis reaction.

Bibliographical note

©2020 IUPAC & De Gruyter.

    Research areas

  • amides, bio-based, biocatalysis, biocatalysts, enzyme catalysis, fine chemicals, green chemistry, ICGC-8, organic chemistry, organic synthesis, pharmaceuticals, solvents, sustainable chemistry

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