By the same authors

Applying Geometric Morphometrics to Digital Reconstruction and Anatomical Investigation

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Published copy (DOI)



Publication details

Title of host publication Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
DatePublished - 29 Jan 2020
Number of pages17
Place of PublicationCham
EditorsPaul Rea
Original languageEnglish
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-030-24281-7
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-24280-0


Virtual imaging, image manipulation and
morphometric methods are increasingly used
in medicine and the natural sciences. Virtual
imaging hardware and image manipulation
software allows us to readily visualise,
explore, alter, repair and study digital objects.
This suite of equipment and tools combined
with statistical tools for the study of form variation
and covariation using Procrustes based
analyses of landmark coordinates, geometric
morphometrics, makes possible a wide range
of studies of human variation pertinent to biomedicine.
These tools for imaging, quantifying
and analysing form have already led to
new insights into organismal growth, development
and evolution and offer exciting prospects
in future biomedical applications. This
chapter presents a review of commonly used
methods for digital acquisition, extraction and
landmarking of anatomical structures and of
the common geometric morphometric statistical
methods applied to investigate them: generalised
Procrustes analysis to derive shape
variables, principal component analysis to
examine patterns of variation, multivariate
regression to examine how form is influenced

Bibliographical note

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 2019. This is an author-produced version of the published paper. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher’s self-archiving policy. Further copying may not be permitted; contact the publisher for details.

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