By the same authors

From the same journal

Are Bavarian Forests (southern Germany) at risk from ground-level ozone? Assessment using exposure and flux based ozone indices

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Published copy (DOI)


  • Manuela Baumgarten
  • Christian Huber
  • Patrick Bueker
  • Lisa Emberson
  • Hans-Peter Dietrich
  • Angela J. Nunn
  • Christian Heerdt
  • Burkhard Beudert
  • Rainer Matyssek


Publication details

JournalEnvironmental Pollution
DatePublished - Jul 2009
Issue number7
Number of pages17
Pages (from-to)2091-2107
Original languageEnglish


Exposure and flux-based indices of O-3 risk were compared, at 19 forest locations across Bavaria in southern Germany from 2002 to 2005; leaf symptoms on mature beech trees found at these locations were also examined for O-3 injury. O-3 flux modelling was performed using continuously recorded O-3 concentrations in combination with meteorological and soil moisture data collected from Level II forest sites. O-3 measurements at nearby rural open-field sites proved appropriate as surrogates in cases where O-3 data were lacking at forest sites (with altitude-dependent average differences of about 10% between O-3 concentrations). Operational thresholds of biomass loss for both O-3 indices were exceeded at the majority of the forest locations, suggesting similar risk under long-term average climate conditions. However, exposure-based indices estimated higher O-3 risk during dry years as compared to the flux-based approach. In comparison, minor O-3-like leaf injury symptoms were detected only at a few of the forest sites investigated. Relationships between flux-based risk thresholds and tree response need to be established for mature forest stands for validation of predicted growth reductions under the prevailing O-3 regimes. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Research areas

  • O-3 impact, Risk assessment, Exposure and flux based O-3 indices, O-3 uptake, Drought, Fagus sylvatica L., Foliar injury, Forest, Bavaria, Germany, FAGUS-SYLVATICA L., SPRUCE PICEA-ABIES, AMBIENT OZONE, MATURE TREES, ANTIOXIDATIVE DEFENSE, TROPOSPHERIC OZONE, PROTECT VEGETATION, BACKGROUND OZONE, PRUNUS-SEROTINA, SITE CONDITIONS

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