This review of public perceptions of unconventional oil and gas exploration identifies four main types of study. First, UOG is analysed in terms of specific environmental and public health impacts. Second, by examining socio-economic impacts (namely the development of energy boom-towns). Third, in terms of the relationship between prior knowledge of UOG technology and public attitudes of support or opposition. Fourth, in terms of framing and discursive analysis of UOG by stakeholder groups including the print media. We identify a specific knowledge gap for environmental health professionals: that research is needed into how public and environmental health messages can be best communicated to diverse communities potentially affected by fracking, in order to directly improve public health outcomes.