Carrier Relaxation and Multiplication in Bi Doped Graphene

Qi Liu, Xianyang Lu*, Yuxiang Liu, Zhihao Li, Pengfei Yan, Wang Chen, Qinghao Meng, Yongheng Zhang, Chi Yung Yam, Liang He, Yu Yan, Yi Zhang, Jing Wu, Thomas Frauenheim, Rong Zhang, Yongbing Xu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


By introducing different contents of Bi adatoms to the surface of monolayer graphene, the carrier concentration and their dynamics have been effectively modulated as probed directly by the time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy technique. The Bi adatoms are found to assist acoustic phonon scattering events mediated by supercollisions as the disorder effectively relaxes the momentum conservation constraint. A reduced carrier multiplication has been observed, which is related to the shrinking Fermi sea for scattering, as confirmed by time-dependent density functional theory simulation. This work gives insight into hot carrier dynamics in graphene, which is crucial for promoting the application of photoelectric devices.

Original languageEnglish
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 20 Jan 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Q.L., X.L., and Y.L. contributed equally to this work. This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2021YFB3601600), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 12104216, 61427812, and 92165205), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (Nos. BK20200307, BK20192006, and BK20180056), the DFG (Grant No. RTG2247) and the Supercomputer Center of Northern Germany via HLRN (Grant No. hbp0067).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Wiley-VCH GmbH.


  • acoustic phonon-electron interaction
  • carrier multiplication
  • graphene
  • optical phonon-electron interaction

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