Challenges with Coverage with Evidence Development Schemes for Medical Devices: A Systematic Review

Vivian. Reckers-Droog, Carlo. Federici, Werner. Brouwer, M.F. Drummond

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: Coverage with evidence development (CED) schemes are particularly relevant for medical devices (MDs), since clinical evidence is often limited at the time of launch and their long-term (cost-) effectiveness heavily depends on how they are adopted into routine clinical practice. The objective of this study was to identify and describe the challenges that payers and manufacturers might face when assessing the desirability of, choosing the research design for, implementing, and evaluating CED schemes for MDs.
Methods: A systematic literature review was performed on six databases following PRISMA guidelines. Two independent reviewers assessed the eligibility of studies based on predefined criteria and extracted data from the included articles by using a pre-defined extraction template. The data were synthesised in a narrative review.
Results: The systematic search yielded 4,293 articles of which 27 were eligible for inclusion. We identified 20 challenges that are associated with CED schemes for MDs. Five of these challenges relate directly to the characteristics of MDs, and hence are specific to MDs. These challenges concern deciding on whether a CED scheme is required, understanding the relevant uncertainties and risks, identifying meaningful outcomes, defining an adequate duration for a scheme, and market entry of new technologies.
Conclusions: Payers and manufacturers of MDs have to address the identified challenges to improve a CED scheme’s chance of success. This can be further improved by public sharing of information about the outcome of applied schemes and way in which stakeholders have addressed the challenges they faced when applying a CED scheme.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)146-156
Number of pages11
JournalHealth Policy and Technology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2020


  • coverage with evidence development;
  • performance based risk sharing agreements;
  • health technology assessment;
  • decision uncertainty;
  • medical devices;

Cite this