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Characterization of Gas-Phase Organics Using Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry: Cooking Emissions

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  • Felix Klein
  • Stephen M. Platt
  • Naomi J. Farren
  • Anais Detournay
  • Emily A. Bruns
  • Carlo Bozzetti
  • Kaspar R. Daellenbach
  • Dogushan Kilic
  • Nivedita K. Kumar
  • Simone M. Pieber
  • Jay G. Slowik
  • Brice Temime-Roussel
  • Nicolas Marchand
  • Jacqueline F. Hamilton
  • Urs Baltensperger
  • André S H Prévôt
  • Imad El Haddad


Publication details

JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
DateE-pub ahead of print - 14 Jan 2016
DatePublished (current) - 2 Feb 2016
Issue number3
Number of pages8
Pages (from-to)1243-1250
Early online date14/01/16
Original languageEnglish


Cooking processes produce gaseous and particle emissions that are potentially deleterious to human health. Using a highly controlled experimental setup involving a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS), we investigate the emission factors and the detailed chemical composition of gas phase emissions from a broad variety of cooking styles and techniques. A total of 95 experiments were conducted to characterize nonmethane organic gas (NMOG) emissions from boiling, charbroiling, shallow frying, and deep frying of various vegetables and meats, as well as emissions from vegetable oils heated to different temperatures. Emissions from boiling vegetables are dominated by methanol. Significant amounts of dimethyl sulfide are emitted from cruciferous vegetables. Emissions from shallow frying, deep frying and charbroiling are dominated by aldehydes of differing relative composition depending on the oil used. We show that the emission factors of some aldehydes are particularly large which may result in considerable negative impacts on human health in indoor environments. The suitability of some of the aldehydes as tracers for the identification of cooking emissions in ambient air is discussed.

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© 2016 American Chemical Society. This is an author-produced version of the published paper. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher’s self-archiving policy. Further copying may not be permitted; contact the publisher for details

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