Chronic kidney disease and severe mental illness: a scoping review

Claire Carswell, Clodagh Cogley, Kate Bramham, Joseph Chilcot, Helen Noble, Najma Siddiqi

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BACKGROUND: People who have severe mental illness experience higher rates of long-term conditions and die on average 15-20 years earlier than people who do not have severe mental illness, a phenomenon known as the mortality gap. Long-term conditions, such as diabetes, impact health outcomes for people who have severe mental illness, however there is limited recognition of the relationship between chronic kidney disease and severe mental illness. Therefore, the aim of this scoping review was to explore the available evidence on the relationship between chronic kidney disease and severe mental illness.

METHODS: Electronic databases, including MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched. The database searches were limited to articles published between January 2000-January 2022, due to significant progress that has been made in the detection, diagnosis and treatment of both SMI and CKD. Articles were eligible for inclusion if they explored the relationship between SMI and CKD (Stages 1-5) in terms of prevalence, risk factors, clinical outcomes, and access to treatment and services. Severe mental illness was defined as conditions that can present with psychosis, including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, and other psychotic disorders. Thirty articles were included in the review.

RESULTS: The included studies illustrated that there is an increased risk of chronic kidney disease amongst people who have severe mental illness, compared to those who do not. However, people who have severe mental illness and chronic kidney disease are less likely to receive specialist nephrology care, are less likely to be evaluated for a transplant, and have higher rates of mortality.

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, there is a dearth of literature in this area, but the available literature suggests there are significant health inequalities in kidney care amongst people who have severe mental illness. Further research is needed to understand the factors that contribute to this relationship, and to develop strategies to improve both clinical outcomes and access to kidney care.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages29
JournalJournal of nephrology
Early online date8 Apr 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 8 Apr 2023

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© 2023. The Author(s).

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