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Citizenship and enterprise: issues from an investigation of teachers' perceptions in England and Hungary

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


  • I Davies
  • M Fulop
  • M Hutchings
  • A Ross
  • M Berkics


Publication details

JournalComparative Education
DatePublished - Aug 2004
Issue number3
Number of pages22
Pages (from-to)363-384
Original languageEnglish


We explore the perceptions of teachers concerning citizenship and enterprise in Hungary and England. Contextual matters are described and research methods outlined prior to a discussion of emerging issues. We argue that citizenship in both countries is understood broadly in terms of what it means to be human. The English teachers emphasized community issues and being socially active more often than those in Hungary. Hungarian teachers were less positive about state and civil society and more patriotic about their country. In both countries those in provincial towns (rather than those in capital cities) suggested a belief in the need for a greater adherence to rules. There was greater enthusiasm for citizenship education in primary rather than secondary schools in both countries. All teachers seemed wary about a form of enterprise education that relates directly to the economy and this was especially true for the Hungarian sample. Teachers in both countries, while recognizing the current emphasis on competition between and within schools, tended to characterize citizenship education as a constructive social enterprise (rather than an economic enterprise), in which young people are encouraged to explore problems and develop their initiative and capacity for action. All teachers favoured a collaborative and broad-based pedagogical approach in which young people are allowed to explore social and political issues through dilemmas.

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