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Combing Chromosomal DNA Mediated by the SMC Complex: Structure and Mechanisms

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JournalBioessays
DateE-pub ahead of print - 11 Dec 2017
DatePublished (current) - 24 Jan 2018
Number of pages8
Early online date11/12/17
Original languageEnglish

Abstract

Genome maintenance requires various nucleoid‐associated factors in prokaryotes. Among them, the SMC (Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes) protein has been thought to play a static role in the organization and segregation of the chromosome during cell division. However, recent studies have shown that the bacterial SMC is required to align left and right arms of the emerging chromosome and that the protein dynamically travels from origin to Ter region. A rod form of the SMC complex mediates DNA bridging and has been recognized as a machinery responsible for DNA loop extrusion, like eukaryotic condensin or cohesin complexes, which act as chromosome organizers. Attention is now turning to how the prototype of the complex is loaded on the entry site and translocated on chromosomal DNA, explaining its overall conformational changes at atomic levels. Here, we review and highlight recent findings concerning the prokaryotic SMC complex and discuss possible mechanisms from the viewpoint of protein architecture.

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© 2017 The Authors

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