Combining μXANES and μXRD mapping to analyse the heterogeneity in calcium carbonate granules excreted by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

Loredana Brinza, Paul Schofield, Mark Edward Hodson, Sophie Weller, Konstantin Ignatyev, Kalotina Geraki, Paul Quinn, J Frederick W Mosselmans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The use of fluorescence full spectral micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure
(μXANES) mapping is becoming more widespread in the hard energy regime.
This experimental method using the Ca K-edge combined with micro-X-ray
diffraction (μXRD) mapping of the same sample has been enabled on beamline
I18 at Diamond Light Source. This combined approach has been used to probe
both long- and short-range order in calcium carbonate granules produced by the
earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. In granules produced by earthworms cultured
in a control artificial soil, calcite and vaterite are observed in the granules.
However, granules produced by earthworms cultivated in the same artificial soil
amended with 500 p.p.m. Mg also contain an aragonite. The two techniques,
μXRD and μXANES, probe different sample volumes but there is good
agreement in the phase maps produced.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)235-241
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Synchrotron Radiation
Issue number1
Early online date20 Dec 2013
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2014

Bibliographical note

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  • full spectral XANES imaging
  • microfocus diffraction mapping
  • earthworm granules

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