Comparative study on the dynamics and the composition between a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and a plasma enhanced PLD (PE-PLD)

M. Escalona, Heman Bhuyan, J.C. Valenzuela, S. Ibacache, E. Wyndham, M. Favre, F. Veloso, H.M. Ruiz, Erik Wagenaars

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We report the effect of single and dual radio frequency (RF) plasma discharge on the composition and dynamics of a titanium plasma plume produced in a plasma-enhanced pulsed laser deposition (PE-PLD) system. The study was carried out in a nitrogen environment at different pressures. Time-resolved images, optical emission spectroscopy, and interferometry were employed to analyze the plasma. We were able to fit time-resolved images using different expansion models, obtained an expansion velocity between 6 and 30 x 103 m/s. Emission lines from N II, Ti II, were observed by changing the pressure and RF conditions. An increase in emission line intensity from N II was observed by increasing the pressure and RF power. We used Ti II lines to estimate the plasma temperature by using the Boltzmann equation, and we obtained the density from the Ti II line (454.9 nm) through Stark broadening. In addition, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer was employed to make a two-dimensional map of the electron density at early times. The estimated temperatures and densities are between 0.8 - 2.0 eV and 1017 – 1018 cm-3, respectively. The results suggest that increasing RF power enhanced the Ti-N atoms interaction, which is crucial in titanium nitride film applications.
Original languageEnglish
Article number104066
JournalResults in Physics
Early online date22 Mar 2021
Publication statusPublished - 31 Mar 2021

Bibliographical note

© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.

Cite this