By the same authors

From the same journal

Cross-cultural invariance of the Academic Expectations Stress Inventory: Adolescent samples from Canada and Singapore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Rebecca P. Ang
  • Robert M. Klassen
  • Wan Har Chong
  • Vivien S. Huan
  • Isabella Y. F. Wong
  • Lay See Yeo
  • Lindsey L. Krawchuk


Publication details

JournalJournal of Adolescence
DatePublished - Oct 2009
Issue number5
Number of pages13
Pages (from-to)1225-1237
Original languageEnglish


We provide further evidence for the two-factor structure of the 9-item Academic Expectations Stress Inventory (AESI) using confirmatory factor analysis on a sample of 289 Canadian adolescents and 310 Singaporean adolescents. Examination of measurement invariance tests the assumption that the model underlying a set of scores is directly comparable across groups. This study also examined the cross-cultural validity of the AESI using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis across both the Canadian and Singaporean adolescent samples. The results suggested cross-cultural invariance of form, factor loadings, and factor variances and covariances of the AESI across both samples. Evidence of AESI's convergent and discriminant validity was also reported. Findings from t-tests revealed that Singaporean adolescents reported a significantly higher level of academic stress arising from self expectations, other expectations, and overall academic stress, compared to Canadian adolescents. Also, a larger cross-cultural effect was associated with academic stress arising from other expectations compared with academic stress arising from self expectations. (C) 2009 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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