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Detecting fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in wild bird tissues and feathers

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Detecting fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in wild bird tissues and feathers. / Whitlock, Sophia E; Pereira, M Glória; Lane, Julie; Sleep, Darren; Shore, Richard F; Arnold, Kathryn E.

In: Environment International, Vol. 126, 05.2019, p. 193-201.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Harvard

Whitlock, SE, Pereira, MG, Lane, J, Sleep, D, Shore, RF & Arnold, KE 2019, 'Detecting fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in wild bird tissues and feathers', Environment International, vol. 126, pp. 193-201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.01.083

APA

Whitlock, S. E., Pereira, M. G., Lane, J., Sleep, D., Shore, R. F., & Arnold, K. E. (2019). Detecting fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in wild bird tissues and feathers. Environment International, 126, 193-201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.01.083

Vancouver

Whitlock SE, Pereira MG, Lane J, Sleep D, Shore RF, Arnold KE. Detecting fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in wild bird tissues and feathers. Environment International. 2019 May;126:193-201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.01.083

Author

Whitlock, Sophia E ; Pereira, M Glória ; Lane, Julie ; Sleep, Darren ; Shore, Richard F ; Arnold, Kathryn E. / Detecting fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in wild bird tissues and feathers. In: Environment International. 2019 ; Vol. 126. pp. 193-201.

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@article{e0bef66b081f4ec0b4d7dfa07891522b,
title = "Detecting fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in wild bird tissues and feathers",
abstract = "The contamination of the environment with human pharmaceuticals is widespread and demand for such products is mounting globally. Wild vertebrates may be at particular risk from any effects from pharmaceuticals, because of the evolutionary conservation of drug targets. However, exposure of wildlife to pharmaceuticals is poorly characterised, partly due to challenges associated with detecting rapidly metabolised compounds. As part of a wider study on the behavioural effects of fluoxetine (Prozac) on Eurasian starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), we investigated which avian samples are best suited for detecting exposure to fluoxetine in free-living birds. We analysed plasma, various tissues and tail feathers (grown both in the wild and in captivity during the dosing period) from fluoxetine-treated birds (dosed daily with 0.035 mg kg-1 bodyweight for 28 weeks), and liver tissue and tail feathers from sham-dosed birds. We detected fluoxetine in only two of twelve plasma samples from dosed birds. In dosed birds, median concentrations of free fluoxetine/norfluoxetine in tissues (two hour post-final dose) were: 111.2/67.6 ng g-1 in liver, 29.6/5.7 ng g-1 in kidney, 14.2/4.0 ng g-1 in lung, 15.1/1.6 ng g-1 in brain. We estimated that fluoxetine would remain detectable in liver and kidney approximately 4.5 times longer (90 h) than in brain (20h). In dosed birds, fluoxetine was detected in feathers regrown during the dosing period (median concentration = 11.4 ng g-1) at concentrations significantly higher than in regrown feathers from control birds. Fluoxetine residues were detected in wild-grown feathers (grown before the birds were brought into captivity) at concentrations up to 27.0 ng g-1, providing some evidence of likely exposure in the wild. Our results show liver and kidney can be used for detecting fluoxetine in avian carcasses and provide a first indication that feathers may be useful for assessing exposure to fluoxetine, and possibly other pharmaceuticals.",
keywords = "Bioaccumulation, Biomonitoring, Feathers, Fluoxetine, Pharmaceuticals, Wild birds",
author = "Whitlock, {Sophia E} and Pereira, {M Gl{\'o}ria} and Julie Lane and Darren Sleep and Shore, {Richard F} and Arnold, {Kathryn E}",
note = " {\textcopyright} 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.",
year = "2019",
month = may,
doi = "10.1016/j.envint.2019.01.083",
language = "English",
volume = "126",
pages = "193--201",
journal = " Environment International",
issn = "0160-4120",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",

}

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Detecting fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in wild bird tissues and feathers

AU - Whitlock, Sophia E

AU - Pereira, M Glória

AU - Lane, Julie

AU - Sleep, Darren

AU - Shore, Richard F

AU - Arnold, Kathryn E

N1 - © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

PY - 2019/5

Y1 - 2019/5

N2 - The contamination of the environment with human pharmaceuticals is widespread and demand for such products is mounting globally. Wild vertebrates may be at particular risk from any effects from pharmaceuticals, because of the evolutionary conservation of drug targets. However, exposure of wildlife to pharmaceuticals is poorly characterised, partly due to challenges associated with detecting rapidly metabolised compounds. As part of a wider study on the behavioural effects of fluoxetine (Prozac) on Eurasian starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), we investigated which avian samples are best suited for detecting exposure to fluoxetine in free-living birds. We analysed plasma, various tissues and tail feathers (grown both in the wild and in captivity during the dosing period) from fluoxetine-treated birds (dosed daily with 0.035 mg kg-1 bodyweight for 28 weeks), and liver tissue and tail feathers from sham-dosed birds. We detected fluoxetine in only two of twelve plasma samples from dosed birds. In dosed birds, median concentrations of free fluoxetine/norfluoxetine in tissues (two hour post-final dose) were: 111.2/67.6 ng g-1 in liver, 29.6/5.7 ng g-1 in kidney, 14.2/4.0 ng g-1 in lung, 15.1/1.6 ng g-1 in brain. We estimated that fluoxetine would remain detectable in liver and kidney approximately 4.5 times longer (90 h) than in brain (20h). In dosed birds, fluoxetine was detected in feathers regrown during the dosing period (median concentration = 11.4 ng g-1) at concentrations significantly higher than in regrown feathers from control birds. Fluoxetine residues were detected in wild-grown feathers (grown before the birds were brought into captivity) at concentrations up to 27.0 ng g-1, providing some evidence of likely exposure in the wild. Our results show liver and kidney can be used for detecting fluoxetine in avian carcasses and provide a first indication that feathers may be useful for assessing exposure to fluoxetine, and possibly other pharmaceuticals.

AB - The contamination of the environment with human pharmaceuticals is widespread and demand for such products is mounting globally. Wild vertebrates may be at particular risk from any effects from pharmaceuticals, because of the evolutionary conservation of drug targets. However, exposure of wildlife to pharmaceuticals is poorly characterised, partly due to challenges associated with detecting rapidly metabolised compounds. As part of a wider study on the behavioural effects of fluoxetine (Prozac) on Eurasian starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), we investigated which avian samples are best suited for detecting exposure to fluoxetine in free-living birds. We analysed plasma, various tissues and tail feathers (grown both in the wild and in captivity during the dosing period) from fluoxetine-treated birds (dosed daily with 0.035 mg kg-1 bodyweight for 28 weeks), and liver tissue and tail feathers from sham-dosed birds. We detected fluoxetine in only two of twelve plasma samples from dosed birds. In dosed birds, median concentrations of free fluoxetine/norfluoxetine in tissues (two hour post-final dose) were: 111.2/67.6 ng g-1 in liver, 29.6/5.7 ng g-1 in kidney, 14.2/4.0 ng g-1 in lung, 15.1/1.6 ng g-1 in brain. We estimated that fluoxetine would remain detectable in liver and kidney approximately 4.5 times longer (90 h) than in brain (20h). In dosed birds, fluoxetine was detected in feathers regrown during the dosing period (median concentration = 11.4 ng g-1) at concentrations significantly higher than in regrown feathers from control birds. Fluoxetine residues were detected in wild-grown feathers (grown before the birds were brought into captivity) at concentrations up to 27.0 ng g-1, providing some evidence of likely exposure in the wild. Our results show liver and kidney can be used for detecting fluoxetine in avian carcasses and provide a first indication that feathers may be useful for assessing exposure to fluoxetine, and possibly other pharmaceuticals.

KW - Bioaccumulation

KW - Biomonitoring

KW - Feathers

KW - Fluoxetine

KW - Pharmaceuticals

KW - Wild birds

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85061831085&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.envint.2019.01.083

DO - 10.1016/j.envint.2019.01.083

M3 - Article

C2 - 30802636

VL - 126

SP - 193

EP - 201

JO - Environment International

JF - Environment International

SN - 0160-4120

ER -