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Direct evidence from lipid residue analysis for the routine consumption of millet in Early Medieval Italy

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Direct evidence from lipid residue analysis for the routine consumption of millet in Early Medieval Italy. / Ganzarolli, Giovanna; Alexander, Michelle Marie; Chavarria Arnau, Alexandra; Craig, Oliver Edward.

In: Journal of archaeological science, Vol. 96, 08.2018, p. 124-130.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Ganzarolli, G, Alexander, MM, Chavarria Arnau, A & Craig, OE 2018, 'Direct evidence from lipid residue analysis for the routine consumption of millet in Early Medieval Italy', Journal of archaeological science, vol. 96, pp. 124-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2018.06.007

APA

Ganzarolli, G., Alexander, M. M., Chavarria Arnau, A., & Craig, O. E. (2018). Direct evidence from lipid residue analysis for the routine consumption of millet in Early Medieval Italy. Journal of archaeological science, 96, 124-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2018.06.007

Vancouver

Ganzarolli G, Alexander MM, Chavarria Arnau A, Craig OE. Direct evidence from lipid residue analysis for the routine consumption of millet in Early Medieval Italy. Journal of archaeological science. 2018 Aug;96:124-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2018.06.007

Author

Ganzarolli, Giovanna ; Alexander, Michelle Marie ; Chavarria Arnau, Alexandra ; Craig, Oliver Edward. / Direct evidence from lipid residue analysis for the routine consumption of millet in Early Medieval Italy. In: Journal of archaeological science. 2018 ; Vol. 96. pp. 124-130.

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@article{415d9096398e4fac84fec18f277c4768,
title = "Direct evidence from lipid residue analysis for the routine consumption of millet in Early Medieval Italy",
abstract = "Millets have been cultivated in Europe since the Late Neolithic but, beyond recording their presence, little is known about their use and context of consumption. As a C4 plant, the contribution of millet on diet can be readily identified through stable isotope analysis of human bones. Using this approach, however, previous studies have been unable to distinguish direct consumption of the cereal from the consumption of millet fed animals. Historical evidence suggests that the latter was common practice. To address this issue, we present the first direct evidence for millet consumption in Medieval period using organic residue analysis. Lipid were extracted from 45 pottery vessels from the Episcopal centre in Padua, Northern Italy dating from the 6th to 10th centuries AD. Miliacin, a biomarker for broomcorn millet, was present in many of the cooking vessels tested. Based on the co-occurrence of miliacin with other food derived lipids and the vessel typologies, we suggest that millet was a common culinary ingredient during the Early Medieval period in this region. The earliest evidence dates to the 6th c. AD and notably derives from deposits associated with high status occupation of the site, a surprising result given the common association of these crops as low-status or starvation foods in the historic periods. It is likely that millet was a common cereal staple in human diet during this period in North-eastern Italy and that its use was far less restricted than previously thought. More broadly, our study highlights the efficacy of combining organic residue analysis and stable isotope analysis of bone to relate culinary and dietary information of ancient populations.",
keywords = "MilletMiliacin, Organic residue analysis, Cooking wares, Lipids, Ceramics, early medieval",
author = "Giovanna Ganzarolli and Alexander, {Michelle Marie} and {Chavarria Arnau}, Alexandra and Craig, {Oliver Edward}",
note = "This is an author-produced version of the published paper. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher’s self-archiving policy.",
year = "2018",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1016/j.jas.2018.06.007",
language = "English",
volume = "96",
pages = "124--130",
journal = "Journal of archaeological science",
issn = "0305-4403",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",

}

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Direct evidence from lipid residue analysis for the routine consumption of millet in Early Medieval Italy

AU - Ganzarolli, Giovanna

AU - Alexander, Michelle Marie

AU - Chavarria Arnau, Alexandra

AU - Craig, Oliver Edward

N1 - This is an author-produced version of the published paper. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher’s self-archiving policy.

PY - 2018/8

Y1 - 2018/8

N2 - Millets have been cultivated in Europe since the Late Neolithic but, beyond recording their presence, little is known about their use and context of consumption. As a C4 plant, the contribution of millet on diet can be readily identified through stable isotope analysis of human bones. Using this approach, however, previous studies have been unable to distinguish direct consumption of the cereal from the consumption of millet fed animals. Historical evidence suggests that the latter was common practice. To address this issue, we present the first direct evidence for millet consumption in Medieval period using organic residue analysis. Lipid were extracted from 45 pottery vessels from the Episcopal centre in Padua, Northern Italy dating from the 6th to 10th centuries AD. Miliacin, a biomarker for broomcorn millet, was present in many of the cooking vessels tested. Based on the co-occurrence of miliacin with other food derived lipids and the vessel typologies, we suggest that millet was a common culinary ingredient during the Early Medieval period in this region. The earliest evidence dates to the 6th c. AD and notably derives from deposits associated with high status occupation of the site, a surprising result given the common association of these crops as low-status or starvation foods in the historic periods. It is likely that millet was a common cereal staple in human diet during this period in North-eastern Italy and that its use was far less restricted than previously thought. More broadly, our study highlights the efficacy of combining organic residue analysis and stable isotope analysis of bone to relate culinary and dietary information of ancient populations.

AB - Millets have been cultivated in Europe since the Late Neolithic but, beyond recording their presence, little is known about their use and context of consumption. As a C4 plant, the contribution of millet on diet can be readily identified through stable isotope analysis of human bones. Using this approach, however, previous studies have been unable to distinguish direct consumption of the cereal from the consumption of millet fed animals. Historical evidence suggests that the latter was common practice. To address this issue, we present the first direct evidence for millet consumption in Medieval period using organic residue analysis. Lipid were extracted from 45 pottery vessels from the Episcopal centre in Padua, Northern Italy dating from the 6th to 10th centuries AD. Miliacin, a biomarker for broomcorn millet, was present in many of the cooking vessels tested. Based on the co-occurrence of miliacin with other food derived lipids and the vessel typologies, we suggest that millet was a common culinary ingredient during the Early Medieval period in this region. The earliest evidence dates to the 6th c. AD and notably derives from deposits associated with high status occupation of the site, a surprising result given the common association of these crops as low-status or starvation foods in the historic periods. It is likely that millet was a common cereal staple in human diet during this period in North-eastern Italy and that its use was far less restricted than previously thought. More broadly, our study highlights the efficacy of combining organic residue analysis and stable isotope analysis of bone to relate culinary and dietary information of ancient populations.

KW - MilletMiliacin

KW - Organic residue analysis

KW - Cooking wares

KW - Lipids

KW - Ceramics

KW - early medieval

UR - https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305440318303182#!

U2 - 10.1016/j.jas.2018.06.007

DO - 10.1016/j.jas.2018.06.007

M3 - Article

VL - 96

SP - 124

EP - 130

JO - Journal of archaeological science

T2 - Journal of archaeological science

JF - Journal of archaeological science

SN - 0305-4403

ER -