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From the same journal

Early Neolithic wine of Georgia in the South Caucasus

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Published copy (DOI)


  • Patrick McGovern
  • Mindia Jalabadze
  • Stephen Batiuk
  • Michael P. Callahan
  • Karen E. Smith
  • Gretchen R. Hall
  • Eliso Kvavadze
  • David Maghradze
  • Nana Rusishvili
  • Laurent Bouby
  • Osvaldo Failla
  • Gabriele Cola
  • Luigi Mariani
  • Elisabetta Boaretto
  • Roberto Bacilieri
  • Patrice This
  • Nathan Wales
  • David Lordkipanidze


Publication details

JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
DateAccepted/In press - 7 Oct 2017
DateE-pub ahead of print - 13 Nov 2017
DatePublished (current) - 28 Nov 2017
Issue number48
Pages (from-to)E10309-E10318
Early online date13/11/17
Original languageEnglish


Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics from sites in Georgia in the South Caucasus region, dating to the early Neolithic period (ca. 6,000–5,000 BC), provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from the Near East, at ca. 6,000–5,800 BC. The chemical findings are corroborated by climatic and environmental reconstruction, together with archaeobotanical evidence, including grape pollen, starch, and epidermal remains associated with a jar of similar type and date. The very large-capacity jars, some of the earliest pottery made in the Near East, probably served as combination fermentation, aging, and serving vessels. They are the most numerous pottery type at many sites comprising the so-called “Shulaveri-Shomutepe Culture” of the Neolithic period, which extends into western Azerbaijan and northern Armenia. The discovery of early sixth millennium BC grape wine in this region is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world.

    Research areas

  • Georgia, Near East, Neolithic, Viticulture, Wine

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