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Eave tubes for malaria control in Africa: an introduction

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  • Bart G.J. Knols
  • Marit Farenhorst
  • Rob Andriessen
  • Janneke Snetselaar
  • Remco A. Suer
  • Anne J. Osinga
  • Johan M.H. Knols
  • Johan Deschietere
  • Kija R. Ng’habi
  • Issa N. Lyimo
  • Stella T. Kessy
  • Valeriana S. Mayagaya
  • Sergej Sperling
  • Michael Cordel
  • Eleanore D. Sternberg
  • Patrick Hartmann
  • Ladslaus L. Mnyone
  • Andreas Rose
  • Matthew B. Thomas


Publication details

DateAccepted/In press - 25 Jul 2016
DateE-pub ahead of print (current) - 11 Aug 2016
Issue number1
Number of pages7
Pages (from-to)1-7
Early online date11/08/16
Original languageEnglish


In spite of massive progress in the control of African malaria since the turn of the century, there is a clear and recognized need for additional tools beyond long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides, to progress towards elimination. Moreover, widespread and intensifying insecticide resistance requires alternative control agents and delivery systems to enable development of effective insecticide resistance management strategies. This series of articles presents a novel concept for malaria vector control, the ‘eave tube’, which may fulfil these important criteria. From its conceptualization to laboratory and semi-field testing, to demonstration of potential for implementation, the stepwise development of this new vector control approach is described. These studies suggest eave tubes (which comprise a novel way of delivering insecticides plus screening to make the house more ‘mosquito proof’) could be a viable, cost-effective, and acceptable control tool for endophilic and endophagic anophelines, and possibly other (nuisance) mosquitoes. The approach could be applicable in a wide variety of housing in sub-Saharan Africa, and possibly beyond, for vectors that use the eave as their primary house entry point. The results presented in these articles were generated during an EU-FP7 funded project, the mosquito contamination device (MCD) project, which ran between 2012 and 2015. This was a collaborative project undertaken by vector biologists, product developers, modellers, materials scientists, and entrepreneurs from five different countries.

Bibliographical note

© 2016, The Author(s).

    Research areas

  • Africa, Eave tube, House modification, Malaria elimination, Resistance, Vector control

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