Education and the learning experience in reimagining education: The International Science and Evidence based Education Assessment

Anna Louise Bull, Kim Allen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review


This chapter assesses the biological, psychological and social factors that contribute to individual differences in learning. Recent research suggests individual differences emerge from complex interactions between these factors. Here the focus is on reciprocities across the different levels and exploring the controversies and convergences across different disciplines. Cross-disciplinary research can lead to innovations in the science of learning. For example, culturally sensitive conceptualizations and assessments of psychological processes acknowledge the interactions between individuals’ cognitive development with the sociopolitical factors that shape their environments. The findings caution against policy interventions that focus on a single assumed causal factor because educational outcomes cannot be predicted by one factor alone. Future research and policy should account for the interacting ‘bio-psycho-social’ (Youdell et al., 2020) factors that influence individual differences in education.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIndividual differences and influences on learning
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 9 Feb 2022

Publication series



  • individual differences
  • genetics
  • socio-economic outcomes
  • intersectionality
  • non-cognitive skills
  • cognitive skills

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