• Requires a shift from managing individual marine features within MPAs to whole-sites to enable repair and renewal of marine systems;
• Reflects an ambition for sustainable livelihoods by fully integrating fisheries management with conservation (Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management) as the two are critically interdependent;
• Establishes a world class and cost effective ecological and socio-economic monitoring and evaluation framework that includes the use of controls and sentinel sites to improve sustainability in marine management; and
• Challenges policy makers and practitioners to be progressive by integrating MPAs into the wider seascape as critical functional components rather than a competing interest and move beyond MPAs as the only tool to underpin the benefits derived from marine ecosystems by identifying other effective area-based conservation measures (OECMs) to establish synergies with wider governance frameworks.
Bibliographical note© 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
- Ecosystem Services
- Natural capital
- Convention on Biological Diversity
- Ecosystem based fisheries management
- Marine spatial planning