Error and unsharpness in approximate joint measurements of position and momentum

Paul Busch, David B Pearson

Research output: Working paperPreprint


In recent years, novel quantifications of measurement error in quantum mechanics have for the first time enabled precise formulations of Heisenberg’s famous but often challenged measurement uncertainty relation. These relations take the form of a trade-off for the necessary errors in joint approximate measurements of position and momentum and other incompatible pairs of observables. Here we review some of these error measures, examine their properties and suitability, and compare their relative strengths as criteria for “good” approximations.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusUnpublished - 2014


  • quantum mechanics
  • uncertainty relations

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