“Everything the hujur tells is very educative but if I cannot apply those in my own life then there is no meaning”: A mixed-methods process evaluation of a smoke-free homes intervention in Bangladesh

Catherine Jackson, Zunayed Azdi, Ian Kellar, Noreen Dadirai Mdege, Caroline Marie Fairhurst, Tarana Ferdous, Catherine Elizabeth Hewitt, Rumana Huque, Anna Marshall, Sean Semple, Aziz Sheikh, Kamran Siddiqi

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Second-hand smoke exposure from tobacco significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality worldwide. A cluster RCT in Bangladesh compared a community-based smoke-free home (SFH) intervention delivered in mosques, with or without indoor air quality (IAQ) feedback to households to no intervention. Neither was effective nor cost-effective compared to no intervention using an objective measure of second-hand smoke. This paper presents the process evaluation embedded within the trial and seeks to understand this.

A mixed method process evaluation comprising interviews with 30 household leads and six imams (prayer leader in mosque), brief questionnaire completed by 900 household leads (75% response), fidelity assessment of intervention delivery in six (20%) mosques and research team records. Data were triangulated using meta-themes informed by three process evaluation functions: implementation, mechanisms of impact and context.

IMPLEMENTATION: Frequency of SFH intervention delivery was judged moderate to good. However there were mixed levels of intervention fidelity and poor reach. Linked Ayahs (verses of the Qur’an) with health messages targeting SHS attitudes were most often fully implemented and had greatest reach (along with those targeting social norms). Frequency and reach of the IAQ feedback were good. MECHANISMS OF IMPACT: Both interventions had good acceptability. However, views on usefulness of the interventions in creating a SFH were mixed. Individual drivers to behaviour change were new SFH knowledge with corresponding positive attitudes, social norms and intentions. Individual barriers were a lack of self-efficacy and plans. CONTEXT: Social context drivers to SFH intervention implementation in mosques were in place and important. No context barriers to implementation were reported. Social context drivers to SHS behaviour change were children’s requests. Barriers were women’s reluctance to ask men to smoke outside alongside general reluctance to request this of visitors. (Not) having somewhere to smoke outside was a physical context (barrier) and driver.

Despite detailed development and adaption work with relevant stakeholders, the SFH intervention and IAQ feedback became educational interventions that were motivational but insufficient to overcome significant context barriers to reduce objectively measured SHS exposure in the home. Future interventions could usefully incorporate practical support for SFH behaviour change. Moreover, embedding these into community wide strategies that include practical cessation support and enforcement of SFH legislation is needed.

Study Registration
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN49975452

Key words: tobacco, second-hand smoke, smoke free homes, faith, mosque, intervention, process evaluation, Bangladesh
Original languageEnglish
Article number1889
Number of pages14
JournalBMC Public Health
Publication statusPublished - 11 Oct 2022

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