Evolutionary Relationships among Actinophages and a Putative Adaptation for Growth in Streptomyces spp

Margaret C M Smith, Roger W Hendrix, Rebekah Dedrick, Kaitlin Mitchell, Ching-Chung Ko, Daniel Russell, Emma Bell, Matthew Gregory, Maureen J Bibb, Florence Pethick, Deborah Jacobs-Sera, Paul Herron, Mark J Buttner, Graham F Hatfull

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The genome sequences of eight Streptomyces phages are presented, four of which have been isolated for this study. Phages R4, TG1, ϕHau3 and SV1 were isolated previously and have been exploited as tools for understanding and genetically manipulating Streptomyces spp. We also extracted five apparently intact prophages from recent Streptomyces spp genome projects and, together with six phage genomes in the database, we analysed all nineteen Streptomyces phage genomes with a view to understanding their relationships to each other and to other actinophages, in particular the mycobacteriophages. Sixteen of the Streptomyces phages group into four clusters of related genomes. Although the R4-like phages do not share nucleotide sequence similarity with other phages, they clearly have common ancestry with Cluster A mycobacteriophages, sharing many protein homologues, common gene syntenies, and similar repressor-stoperator regulatory systems.. The R4-like phage, ϕHau3 and the prophage StrepC.1 (from Streptomyces sp. C) appear to have hijacked a unique adaptation of the streptomycetes, i.e., use of the rare UUA codon, to control translation of the essential phage protein, the terminase. The Streptomyces venezuelae generalised transducing phage, SV1, was used to predict the presence of other generalised transducing phages for different Streptomyces species.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Bacteriology
Publication statusPublished - 30 Aug 2013

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