The primary goal of this study was to investigate the factor structure and validity of the English Precursors to Boredom Scales (E-PBS) in a sample of Canadian college students. Findings showed that the factor structure and item loadings of the E-PBS were comparable with those published on German samples. In addition, the present study examined criterion-related evidence between the E-PBS and students' self-efficacy for self-regulated learning (SESRL) and achievement. Our results showed negative associations between SESRL and four antecedents to boredom (i.e., being bored due to over-challenged, lack of meaning, opportunity costs, and general boredom tendency), whereas only one significant correlation—between being under-challenged and students' achievement—emerged.
- Scale validation
- Precursors to boredom
- Self-efficacy for self-regulated learning