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Filling the gap. Human cranial remains from Gombore II (Melka kunture, Ethiopia; ca. 850 ka) and the origin of Homo heidelbergensis

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Published copy (DOI)


  • Antonio Profico
  • Fabio di Vincenzo
  • Lorenza Gagliardi
  • Marcello Piperno
  • Giorgio Manzi


Publication details

JournalJournal of anthropological sciences
DatePublished - 1 Jan 2016
Number of pages23
Pages (from-to)41-63
Original languageEnglish


African archaic humans dated to around 1,0 Ma share morphological affinities with Homo ergaster and appear distinct in cranio-dental morphology from those of the Middle Pleistocene that are referred to Homo heidelbergensis. This observation suggests a taxonomic and phylogenetic discontinuity in Africa that ranges across the Matuyama/Brunhes reversal (780 ka). Yet, the fossil record between roughly 900 and 600 ka is notoriously poor. In this context, the Early Stone Age site of Gombore II, in the Melka Kunture formation (Upper Awash, Ethiopia), provides a privileged case-study. In the Acheulean layer of Gombore II, somewhat more recent than 875±10 ka, two large cranial fragments were discovered in 1973 and 1975 respectively: a partial left parietal (Melka Kunture 1) and a right portion of the frontal bone (Melka Kunture 2), which probably belonged to the same cranium. We present here the first detailed description and computer-assisted reconstruction of the morphology of the cranial vault pertaining to these fossil fragments. Our analysis suggest that the human fossil specimen from Gombore II fills a phenetic gap between Homo ergaster and Homo heidelbergensis. This appears in agreement with the chronology of such a partial cranial vault, which therefore represents at present one of the best available candidates (if any) for the origin of Homo heidelbergensis in Africa.

    Research areas

  • Africa, Bézier curve, Geometric Morphometrics, Human evolution, Matuyama/ Brunhes boundary, Paleoanthropology

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