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Genotypes of predomestic horses match phenotypes painted in Paleolithic works of cave art

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Genotypes of predomestic horses match phenotypes painted in Paleolithic works of cave art. / Pruvost, Melanie; Bellone, Rebecca; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Cieslak, Michael; Kuznetsova, Tatyana; Morales-Muniz, Arturo; O'Connor, Terry; Reissmann, Monika; Hofreiter, Michael; Ludwig, Arne.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 108, No. 46, 15.11.2011, p. 18626-18630.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Pruvost, M, Bellone, R, Benecke, N, Sandoval-Castellanos, E, Cieslak, M, Kuznetsova, T, Morales-Muniz, A, O'Connor, T, Reissmann, M, Hofreiter, M & Ludwig, A 2011, 'Genotypes of predomestic horses match phenotypes painted in Paleolithic works of cave art', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 108, no. 46, pp. 18626-18630. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1108982108

APA

Pruvost, M., Bellone, R., Benecke, N., Sandoval-Castellanos, E., Cieslak, M., Kuznetsova, T., ... Ludwig, A. (2011). Genotypes of predomestic horses match phenotypes painted in Paleolithic works of cave art. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(46), 18626-18630. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1108982108

Vancouver

Pruvost M, Bellone R, Benecke N, Sandoval-Castellanos E, Cieslak M, Kuznetsova T et al. Genotypes of predomestic horses match phenotypes painted in Paleolithic works of cave art. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2011 Nov 15;108(46):18626-18630. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1108982108

Author

Pruvost, Melanie ; Bellone, Rebecca ; Benecke, Norbert ; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson ; Cieslak, Michael ; Kuznetsova, Tatyana ; Morales-Muniz, Arturo ; O'Connor, Terry ; Reissmann, Monika ; Hofreiter, Michael ; Ludwig, Arne. / Genotypes of predomestic horses match phenotypes painted in Paleolithic works of cave art. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2011 ; Vol. 108, No. 46. pp. 18626-18630.

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@article{7ff20ac3291f420e9d6b33ba7e62f101,
title = "Genotypes of predomestic horses match phenotypes painted in Paleolithic works of cave art",
abstract = "Archaeologists often argue whether Paleolithic works of art, cave paintings in particular, constitute reflections of the natural environment of humans at the time. They also debate the extent to which these paintings actually contain creative artistic expression, reflect the phenotypic variation of the surrounding environment, or focus on rare phenotypes. The famous paintings {"}The Dappled Horses of Pech-Merle,{"} depicting spotted horses on the walls of a cave in Pech-Merle, France, date back similar to 25,000 y, but the coat pattern portrayed in these paintings is remarkably similar to a pattern known as {"}leopard{"} in modern horses. We have genotyped nine coat-color loci in 31 predomestic horses from Siberia, Eastern and Western Europe, and the Iberian Peninsula. Eighteen horses had bay coat color, seven were black, and six shared an allele associated with the leopard complex spotting (LP), representing the only spotted phenotype that has been discovered in wild, predomestic horses thus far. LP was detected in four Pleistocene and two Copper Age samples from Western and Eastern Europe, respectively. In contrast, this phenotype was absent from predomestic Siberian horses. Thus, all horse color phenotypes that seem to be distinguishable in cave paintings have now been found to exist in prehistoric horse populations, suggesting that cave paintings of this species represent remarkably realistic depictions of the animals shown. This finding lends support to hypotheses arguing that cave paintings might have contained less of a symbolic or transcendental connotation than often assumed.",
keywords = "ancient DNA; single nucleotide polymorphism; leopard complex spotting; Franco-Cantabrian region, transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M1",
author = "Melanie Pruvost and Rebecca Bellone and Norbert Benecke and Edson Sandoval-Castellanos and Michael Cieslak and Tatyana Kuznetsova and Arturo Morales-Muniz and Terry O'Connor and Monika Reissmann and Michael Hofreiter and Arne Ludwig",
year = "2011",
month = "11",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1073/pnas.1108982108",
language = "English",
volume = "108",
pages = "18626--18630",
journal = "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America",
issn = "0027-8424",
number = "46",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - Genotypes of predomestic horses match phenotypes painted in Paleolithic works of cave art

AU - Pruvost, Melanie

AU - Bellone, Rebecca

AU - Benecke, Norbert

AU - Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson

AU - Cieslak, Michael

AU - Kuznetsova, Tatyana

AU - Morales-Muniz, Arturo

AU - O'Connor, Terry

AU - Reissmann, Monika

AU - Hofreiter, Michael

AU - Ludwig, Arne

PY - 2011/11/15

Y1 - 2011/11/15

N2 - Archaeologists often argue whether Paleolithic works of art, cave paintings in particular, constitute reflections of the natural environment of humans at the time. They also debate the extent to which these paintings actually contain creative artistic expression, reflect the phenotypic variation of the surrounding environment, or focus on rare phenotypes. The famous paintings "The Dappled Horses of Pech-Merle," depicting spotted horses on the walls of a cave in Pech-Merle, France, date back similar to 25,000 y, but the coat pattern portrayed in these paintings is remarkably similar to a pattern known as "leopard" in modern horses. We have genotyped nine coat-color loci in 31 predomestic horses from Siberia, Eastern and Western Europe, and the Iberian Peninsula. Eighteen horses had bay coat color, seven were black, and six shared an allele associated with the leopard complex spotting (LP), representing the only spotted phenotype that has been discovered in wild, predomestic horses thus far. LP was detected in four Pleistocene and two Copper Age samples from Western and Eastern Europe, respectively. In contrast, this phenotype was absent from predomestic Siberian horses. Thus, all horse color phenotypes that seem to be distinguishable in cave paintings have now been found to exist in prehistoric horse populations, suggesting that cave paintings of this species represent remarkably realistic depictions of the animals shown. This finding lends support to hypotheses arguing that cave paintings might have contained less of a symbolic or transcendental connotation than often assumed.

AB - Archaeologists often argue whether Paleolithic works of art, cave paintings in particular, constitute reflections of the natural environment of humans at the time. They also debate the extent to which these paintings actually contain creative artistic expression, reflect the phenotypic variation of the surrounding environment, or focus on rare phenotypes. The famous paintings "The Dappled Horses of Pech-Merle," depicting spotted horses on the walls of a cave in Pech-Merle, France, date back similar to 25,000 y, but the coat pattern portrayed in these paintings is remarkably similar to a pattern known as "leopard" in modern horses. We have genotyped nine coat-color loci in 31 predomestic horses from Siberia, Eastern and Western Europe, and the Iberian Peninsula. Eighteen horses had bay coat color, seven were black, and six shared an allele associated with the leopard complex spotting (LP), representing the only spotted phenotype that has been discovered in wild, predomestic horses thus far. LP was detected in four Pleistocene and two Copper Age samples from Western and Eastern Europe, respectively. In contrast, this phenotype was absent from predomestic Siberian horses. Thus, all horse color phenotypes that seem to be distinguishable in cave paintings have now been found to exist in prehistoric horse populations, suggesting that cave paintings of this species represent remarkably realistic depictions of the animals shown. This finding lends support to hypotheses arguing that cave paintings might have contained less of a symbolic or transcendental connotation than often assumed.

KW - ancient DNA; single nucleotide polymorphism; leopard complex spotting; Franco-Cantabrian region

KW - transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M1

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=81755172922&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1073/pnas.1108982108

DO - 10.1073/pnas.1108982108

M3 - Article

VL - 108

SP - 18626

EP - 18630

JO - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

SN - 0027-8424

IS - 46

ER -