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Green space and stress: evidence from cortisol measures in deprived urban communities

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Green space and stress : evidence from cortisol measures in deprived urban communities. / Roe, Jenny; Ward Thompson, Catharine ; Aspinall, Peter A; Brewer, Mark J ; Duff, Elizabeth I; Miller, David ; Mitchell, Richard ; Clow, Angela .

In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), Vol. 10, No. 9, 02.09.2013, p. 4086-4103.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Roe, J, Ward Thompson, C, Aspinall, PA, Brewer, MJ, Duff, EI, Miller, D, Mitchell, R & Clow, A 2013, 'Green space and stress: evidence from cortisol measures in deprived urban communities', International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 4086-4103. https://doi.org/doi:10.3390/ijerph10094086

APA

Roe, J., Ward Thompson, C., Aspinall, P. A., Brewer, M. J., Duff, E. I., Miller, D., ... Clow, A. (2013). Green space and stress: evidence from cortisol measures in deprived urban communities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), 10(9), 4086-4103. https://doi.org/doi:10.3390/ijerph10094086

Vancouver

Roe J, Ward Thompson C, Aspinall PA, Brewer MJ, Duff EI, Miller D et al. Green space and stress: evidence from cortisol measures in deprived urban communities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH). 2013 Sep 2;10(9):4086-4103. https://doi.org/doi:10.3390/ijerph10094086

Author

Roe, Jenny ; Ward Thompson, Catharine ; Aspinall, Peter A ; Brewer, Mark J ; Duff, Elizabeth I ; Miller, David ; Mitchell, Richard ; Clow, Angela . / Green space and stress : evidence from cortisol measures in deprived urban communities. In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH). 2013 ; Vol. 10, No. 9. pp. 4086-4103.

Bibtex - Download

@article{ddedc4c5d6a24c059755637eb98aed33,
title = "Green space and stress: evidence from cortisol measures in deprived urban communities",
abstract = "Contact with green space in the environment has been associated with mental health benefits, but the mechanism underpinning this association is not clear. This study extends an earlier exploratory study showing that more green space in deprived urban neighbourhoods in Scotland is linked to lower levels of perceived stress and improved physiological stress as measured by diurnal patterns of cortisol secretion. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured at 3, 6 and 9 h post awakening over two consecutive weekdays, together with measures of perceived stress. Participants (n = 106) were men and women not in work aged between 35–55 years, resident in socially disadvantaged districts from the same Scottish, UK, urban context as the earlier study. Results from linear regression analyses showed a significant and negative relationship between higher green space levels and stress levels, indicating living in areas with a higher percentage of green space is associated with lower stress, confirming the earlier study findings. This study further extends the findings by showing significant gender differences in stress patterns by levels of green space, with women in lower green space areas showing higher levels ofstress. A significant interaction effect between gender and percentage green space on mean cortisol concentrations showed a positive effect of higher green space in relation to cortisol measures in women, but not in men. Higher levels of neighbourhood green space were associated with healthier mean cortisol levels in women whilst also attenuating higher cortisol levels in men. We conclude that higher levels of green space in residential neighbourhoods, for this deprived urban population of middle-aged men and women not inwork, are linked with lower perceived stress and a steeper (healthier) diurnal cortisol decline. However, overall patterns and levels of cortisol secretion in men and women were differentially related to neighbourhood green space and warrant further investigation.",
keywords = "green space, stress, diurnal cycles, saliva, cortisol, neighbourhood, deprivation, gender, mental health",
author = "Jenny Roe and {Ward Thompson}, Catharine and Aspinall, {Peter A} and Brewer, {Mark J} and Duff, {Elizabeth I} and David Miller and Richard Mitchell and Angela Clow",
note = "{\circledC} 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).",
year = "2013",
month = "9",
day = "2",
doi = "doi:10.3390/ijerph10094086",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
pages = "4086--4103",
journal = "International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health",
issn = "1661-7827",
publisher = "Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)",
number = "9",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - Green space and stress

T2 - evidence from cortisol measures in deprived urban communities

AU - Roe, Jenny

AU - Ward Thompson, Catharine

AU - Aspinall, Peter A

AU - Brewer, Mark J

AU - Duff, Elizabeth I

AU - Miller, David

AU - Mitchell, Richard

AU - Clow, Angela

N1 - © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

PY - 2013/9/2

Y1 - 2013/9/2

N2 - Contact with green space in the environment has been associated with mental health benefits, but the mechanism underpinning this association is not clear. This study extends an earlier exploratory study showing that more green space in deprived urban neighbourhoods in Scotland is linked to lower levels of perceived stress and improved physiological stress as measured by diurnal patterns of cortisol secretion. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured at 3, 6 and 9 h post awakening over two consecutive weekdays, together with measures of perceived stress. Participants (n = 106) were men and women not in work aged between 35–55 years, resident in socially disadvantaged districts from the same Scottish, UK, urban context as the earlier study. Results from linear regression analyses showed a significant and negative relationship between higher green space levels and stress levels, indicating living in areas with a higher percentage of green space is associated with lower stress, confirming the earlier study findings. This study further extends the findings by showing significant gender differences in stress patterns by levels of green space, with women in lower green space areas showing higher levels ofstress. A significant interaction effect between gender and percentage green space on mean cortisol concentrations showed a positive effect of higher green space in relation to cortisol measures in women, but not in men. Higher levels of neighbourhood green space were associated with healthier mean cortisol levels in women whilst also attenuating higher cortisol levels in men. We conclude that higher levels of green space in residential neighbourhoods, for this deprived urban population of middle-aged men and women not inwork, are linked with lower perceived stress and a steeper (healthier) diurnal cortisol decline. However, overall patterns and levels of cortisol secretion in men and women were differentially related to neighbourhood green space and warrant further investigation.

AB - Contact with green space in the environment has been associated with mental health benefits, but the mechanism underpinning this association is not clear. This study extends an earlier exploratory study showing that more green space in deprived urban neighbourhoods in Scotland is linked to lower levels of perceived stress and improved physiological stress as measured by diurnal patterns of cortisol secretion. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured at 3, 6 and 9 h post awakening over two consecutive weekdays, together with measures of perceived stress. Participants (n = 106) were men and women not in work aged between 35–55 years, resident in socially disadvantaged districts from the same Scottish, UK, urban context as the earlier study. Results from linear regression analyses showed a significant and negative relationship between higher green space levels and stress levels, indicating living in areas with a higher percentage of green space is associated with lower stress, confirming the earlier study findings. This study further extends the findings by showing significant gender differences in stress patterns by levels of green space, with women in lower green space areas showing higher levels ofstress. A significant interaction effect between gender and percentage green space on mean cortisol concentrations showed a positive effect of higher green space in relation to cortisol measures in women, but not in men. Higher levels of neighbourhood green space were associated with healthier mean cortisol levels in women whilst also attenuating higher cortisol levels in men. We conclude that higher levels of green space in residential neighbourhoods, for this deprived urban population of middle-aged men and women not inwork, are linked with lower perceived stress and a steeper (healthier) diurnal cortisol decline. However, overall patterns and levels of cortisol secretion in men and women were differentially related to neighbourhood green space and warrant further investigation.

KW - green space

KW - stress

KW - diurnal cycles

KW - saliva

KW - cortisol

KW - neighbourhood

KW - deprivation

KW - gender

KW - mental health

U2 - doi:10.3390/ijerph10094086

DO - doi:10.3390/ijerph10094086

M3 - Article

VL - 10

SP - 4086

EP - 4103

JO - International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

JF - International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

SN - 1661-7827

IS - 9

ER -