Greening the esterification between isosorbide and acetic acid

Alexandra Inayat, Alexandre van Assche, James Hanley Clark, Thomas James Farmer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This contribution deals with the investigation of greener conditions for the preparation of 2,5-diacetyl-isosorbide from the bio-based substances isosorbide and acetic acid. The influence of solvent, catalyst and reactant ratio on the course of the isosorbide conversion and selectivity to 2,5-diacetyl-isosorbide as well as to the intermediate 2-acetyl-isosorbide is examined. It was found that the conventionally used solvent toluene can be substituted by the greener solvent n-propyl acetate. Additionally, the homogeneous acid catalyst p-toluene sulfonic acid can be replaced by the heterogeneous catalyst Amberlyst-15, resulting in an easier isolation of the desired 2,5-diacetyl-isosorbide, this being an important precursor for the vasodilatory drug isosorbide-5-nitrate.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-49
Number of pages9
JournalSustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy
Early online date6 Nov 2017
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2018

Bibliographical note

© 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V.


  • isosorbide
  • 2,5-diacetyl-isosorbide
  • 2-acetyl-isosorbide
  • green synthesis
  • esterification

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