Growing Together: An Analysis of Measurement Transparency Across 15 Years of Player Motivation Questionnaires

Nathan Hughes*, Josephine Flockton, Paul Antony Cairns

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


There are many questionnaires to assess player motivation, originating
from a diverse range of disciplines. Each discipline differs in their usage and
reporting of questionnaires, but there has been no attempt to synthesise or
standardise their application. No standard approach leads to a lack of transparency in usage reporting, which affects the ability of the field to synthesise.
This has made it unclear whether player motivation research is a unified
community, or a collection of individuals with a similar goal. Therefore, the
current work assesses the transparency of reporting practices of player motivation
questionnaires published within the last 15 years. 18 questionnaires
were identified via a scoping review, then papers citing these questionnaires
were analysed for their transparency of reporting practices (n=238); first via
a content analysis of justifications for use, then followed by an analysis of
transparency against eight criteria created for this work. Overall, reporting
transparency is lacking, driven by little priority for presenting items alongside
text. Many papers use questionnaires because they are theory-based or
have measured specific variables in previous works, but explicit justification
is rare. The work concludes with a transparency checklist based on the eight
criteria used, which authors can use to standardise the field and allow for
more cohesive research synthesis.
Original languageEnglish
Article number102940
Number of pages20
JournalInternational Journal of Human-Computer Studies
Early online date15 Oct 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2023

Bibliographical note

© 2022 The Author(s).


  • Questionnaires
  • Player Traits
  • Motivations
  • Content analysis

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