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Guidance on priority setting in health care (GPS-Health): The inclusion of equity criteria not captured by cost-effectiveness analysis

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  • Ole F. Norheim
  • Rob Baltussen
  • Mira Johri
  • Dan Chisholm
  • Erik Nord
  • DanW W. Brock
  • Per Carlsson
  • Richard Cookson
  • Norman Daniels
  • Marion Danis
  • Marc Fleurbaey
  • Kjell A. Johansson
  • Lydia Kapiriri
  • Peter Littlejohns
  • Thomas Mbeeli
  • Krishna D. Rao
  • Tan Torres Edejer
  • Dan Wikler


Publication details

JournalCost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation
DatePublished - 29 Aug 2014
Issue number1
Original languageEnglish


This Guidance for Priority Setting in Health Care (GPS-Health), initiated by the World Health Organization, offers a comprehensive map of equity criteria that are relevant to health care priority setting and should be considered in addition to cost-effectiveness analysis. The guidance, in the form of a checklist, is especially targeted at decision makers who set priorities at national and sub-national levels, and those who interpret findings from cost-effectiveness analysis. It is also targeted at researchers conducting cost-effectiveness analysis to improve reporting of their results in the light of these other criteria. The guidance was develop through a series of expert consultation meetings and involved three steps: i) methods and normative concepts were identified through a systematic review; ii) the review findings were critically assessed in the expert consultation meetings which resulted in a draft checklist of normative criteria; iii) the checklist was validated though an extensive hearing process with input from a range of relevant stakeholders. The GPS-Health incorporates criteria related to the disease an intervention targets (severity of disease, capacity to benefit, and past health loss); characteristics of social groups an intervention targets (socioeconomic status, area of living, gender; race, ethnicity, religion and sexual orientation); and non-health consequences of an intervention (financial protection, economic productivity, and care for others).

Bibliographical note

© Authors 2015

    Research areas

  • Cost-effectiveness, Equity, Population health, Priority setting, Resource allocation

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