Using data from a major educational reform in England and Wales, we examine heterogeneity in the long-term impacts of the exposure to different secondary schooling systems, characterized by selective early-tracking system versus non-selective comprehensive schooling, on health outcomes and smoking. We adopt a local instrumental variables approach to estimate person-centered treatment (PeT) effects, thereby recovering the full distribution of individual-level causal effects. We find that the transition from a selective early-tracking system to a non-selective one produced, on a fraction of individuals, significantly increased depression and cigarette smoking. These effects were persistent over time. Cognitive abilities did not moderate the effects, but students with lower non-cognitive skills were most likely to be negatively affected by this exposure.
Bibliographical note©2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. This is an author-produced version of the published paper. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher’s self-archiving policy.
- Educational reform
- Instrumental variable