Trypanosoma cruzi is a remarkably versatile parasite. It can parasitize almost any nucleated cell type and naturally infects hundreds of mammal species across much of the Americas. In humans it is the cause of Chagas disease, a set of mainly chronic conditions predominantly affecting the heart and gastrointestinal tract that can progress to become life threatening. Yet around two thirds of infected people are long-term asymptomatic carriers. Clinical outcomes depend on many factors, but the central determinant is the nature of the host-parasite interactions that play out over the years of chronic infection in diverse tissue environments. In this review, we aim to integrate recent developments in the understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of T. cruzi infections with established and emerging concepts in host immune responses in the corresponding phases and tissues.