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How size, shape and assembly of magnetic nanoparticles give rise to different hyperthermia scenarios

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  • H. Gavilán
  • K. Simeonidis
  • E. Myrovali
  • E. Mazarío
  • O. Chubykalo-Fesenko
  • R. Chantrell
  • Ll Balcells
  • M. Angelakeris
  • M. P. Morales
  • D. Serantes


Publication details

DateAccepted/In press - 24 Aug 2021
DatePublished (current) - 7 Oct 2021
Issue number37
Number of pages16
Pages (from-to)15631-15646
Original languageEnglish


The use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to locally increase the temperature at the nanoscale under the remote application of alternating magnetic fields (magnetic particle hyperthermia, MHT) has become an important subject of nanomedicine multidisciplinary research, focusing among other topics on the optimization of the heating performance of MNPs and their assemblies under the effect of the magnetic field. We report experimental data of heat released by MNPs using a wide range of anisometric shapes and their assemblies in different media. We outline a basic theoretical investigation, which assists the interpretation of the experimental data, including the effect of the size, shape and assembly of MNPs on the MNPs' hysteresis loops and the maximum heat delivered. We report heat release data of anisometric MNPs, including nanodisks, spindles (elongated nanoparticles) and nanocubes, analysing, for a given shape, the size dependence. We study the MNPs either acting as individuals or assembled through a magnetic-field-assisted method. Thus, the physical geometrical arrangement of these anisometric particles, the magnetization switching and the heat release (by means of the determination of the specific adsorption rate, SAR values) under the application of AC fields have been analysed and compared in aqueous suspensions and after immobilization in agar matrix mimicking the tumour environment. The different nano-systems were analysed when dispersed at random or in assembled configurations. We report a systematic fall in the SAR for all anisometric MNPs randomly embedded in a viscous environment. However, certain anisometric shapes will have a less marked, an almost total preservation or even an increase in SAR when embedded in a viscous environment with certain orientation, in contrast to the measurements in water solution. Discrepancies between theoretical and experimental values reflect the complexity of the systems due to the interplay of different factors such as size, shape and nanoparticle assembly due to magnetic interactions. We demonstrate that magnetic assembly holds great potential for producing materials with high functional and structural diversity, as we transform our nanoscale building blocks (anisometric MNPs) into a material displaying enhanced SAR properties.

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
K. S. acknowledges Stavros Niarchos Foundation for financial support. SQUID measurements received funding from the EU-H2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement no 654360 having benefitted from the access provided by CSIC-ICMAB in Barcelona within the framework of the NFFA-Europe Transnational Access Activity. This work was also partially supported by grants from the MINEICO (MAT2017-88148R to M. P. Morales; Severo Ochoa Program (CEX2019-000917-S), RTI2018-099960-B-I00 to Ll. Balcells), the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Investigación (PID2019-109514RJ-100 to D. Serantes) and from the EU, H2020 program through HOTZYME-829162 project. E. M. acknowledges financial support from the Madrid Government (Comunidad de Madrid-Spain) under the Multiannual Agreement with Universidad Autónoma de Madrid in the line of action encouraging youth research doctors, in the context of the V PRICIT (Regional Programme of Research and Technological Innovation, SI1-PJI-2019-00366).

Publisher Copyright:
© The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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