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From the same journal

Hybrid Goals: Institutional Complexity and ‘Legacy’ in a Global Sporting Mega-Event.

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Publication details

JournalPublic Management Review
DateAccepted/In press - 28 Sep 2020
DateE-pub ahead of print - 15 Oct 2020
DatePublished (current) - 15 Oct 2020
Number of pages26
Early online date15/10/20
Original languageEnglish


Definitions of social enterprise and hybrid organizations are compatible and allow application to a variety of organizational forms. We analyze the not-for-profit enterprise formed specifically to deliver the regional element of a global mega-sporting event: The 1994 FIFA (soccer) World Cup. The organization planned a sporting spectacle with commercial objectives to provide long-term benefits for society and a short-term economic boost.
This longitudinal case traces the evolution of the organization and its emergent institutional complexity as it aligned commercial and societal goals.

Bibliographical note

© 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an author-produced version of the published paper. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher’s self-archiving policy. Further copying may not be permitted; contact the publisher for details.

    Research areas

  • philanthropy, Institutional complexity, social enterprise, social entrepreneurship, public authorities, world cup, football, soccer, sport, Mega-event, Mega-project, project management, USA, 1994, FIFA, world-making, case study, archive, business history, management history, organizational history, Stanford

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