Hybrid Goals: Institutional Complexity and ‘Legacy’ in a Global Sporting Mega-Event.

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Definitions of social enterprise and hybrid organizations are compatible and allow application to a variety of organizational forms. We analyze the not-for-profit enterprise formed specifically to deliver the regional element of a global mega-sporting event: The 1994 FIFA (soccer) World Cup. The organization planned a sporting spectacle with commercial objectives to provide long-term benefits for society and a short-term economic boost.
This longitudinal case traces the evolution of the organization and its emergent institutional complexity as it aligned commercial and societal goals.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages26
JournalPublic Management Review
Early online date15 Oct 2020
Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2020

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  • philanthropy
  • Institutional complexity
  • social enterprise
  • social entrepreneurship
  • public authorities
  • world cup
  • football
  • soccer
  • sport
  • Mega-event
  • Mega-project
  • project management
  • USA
  • 1994
  • FIFA
  • world-making
  • case study
  • archive
  • business history
  • management history
  • organizational history
  • Stanford

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