By the same authors

From the same journal

From the same journal

Illicit Cigarette Trade in the Cities of Pakistan: Comparing Findings between the Consumer and Waste Recycle Store Surveys

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Illicit Cigarette Trade in the Cities of Pakistan : Comparing Findings between the Consumer and Waste Recycle Store Surveys. / Khan, Amina; Dobbie, Fiona; Siddiqi, Kamran; Ansari, Saeed; Abdullah, S.; Iqbal, Romaina; Khan, Zohaib; Sohail, Salman; Kanaan, Mona; Islam, Ziauddin; Huque, Rumana; Boeckmann, Melanie; Ross, Hana.

In: Tobacco Control, 15.04.2021.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Harvard

Khan, A, Dobbie, F, Siddiqi, K, Ansari, S, Abdullah, S, Iqbal, R, Khan, Z, Sohail, S, Kanaan, M, Islam, Z, Huque, R, Boeckmann, M & Ross, H 2021, 'Illicit Cigarette Trade in the Cities of Pakistan: Comparing Findings between the Consumer and Waste Recycle Store Surveys', Tobacco Control. https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-056386

APA

Khan, A., Dobbie, F., Siddiqi, K., Ansari, S., Abdullah, S., Iqbal, R., Khan, Z., Sohail, S., Kanaan, M., Islam, Z., Huque, R., Boeckmann, M., & Ross, H. (2021). Illicit Cigarette Trade in the Cities of Pakistan: Comparing Findings between the Consumer and Waste Recycle Store Surveys. Tobacco Control. https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-056386

Vancouver

Khan A, Dobbie F, Siddiqi K, Ansari S, Abdullah S, Iqbal R et al. Illicit Cigarette Trade in the Cities of Pakistan: Comparing Findings between the Consumer and Waste Recycle Store Surveys. Tobacco Control. 2021 Apr 15. https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-056386

Author

Khan, Amina ; Dobbie, Fiona ; Siddiqi, Kamran ; Ansari, Saeed ; Abdullah, S. ; Iqbal, Romaina ; Khan, Zohaib ; Sohail, Salman ; Kanaan, Mona ; Islam, Ziauddin ; Huque, Rumana ; Boeckmann, Melanie ; Ross, Hana. / Illicit Cigarette Trade in the Cities of Pakistan : Comparing Findings between the Consumer and Waste Recycle Store Surveys. In: Tobacco Control. 2021.

Bibtex - Download

@article{daf8ee55e56342068bbde48ca63583ae,
title = "Illicit Cigarette Trade in the Cities of Pakistan: Comparing Findings between the Consumer and Waste Recycle Store Surveys",
abstract = "Background Concerns about the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade have prevented the Government of Pakistan from increasing tobacco taxes. We estimated the proportion of illicit cigarettes sold in Pakistani cities. Moreover, we compared two methods for collecting cigarette packs and investigated if the illicit cigarette trade equates to tax evasion.Method We analysed cigarette packs collected from 10 cities of Pakistan using two methods: consumer survey based on a two-stage random sampling strategy to recruit adult smokers and photograph their cigarette packs and waste recycle store survey to purchase used cigarette packs. Cigarettes were considered illicit if any one of the following was absent from their packs: text and pictorial health warning, underage sale prohibition warning, retail price and manufacturer{\textquoteright}s name. From the consumer survey, we also estimated the proportion of smokers who purchased loose cigarettes (illegal) and packs below the minimum retail price. Taxation officers (n=4) were consulted to assess their level of confidence in judging tax evasion using the above criteria.Results Out of 2416 cigarette packs in the consumer survey, 454 (17.8%; 95% CI 15.4% to 20.2%) were illicit. Similarly, out of 6213 packs from waste recycle shops, 1046 (16.8%; 95% CI 15.9% to 17.7%) were illicit; the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.473). Among consumers, 29.5% bought loose cigarettes and 13.8% paid less than the minimum retail price. The taxation officers considered the manufacturer{\textquoteright}s name and retail price on cigarette packs as the most relevant criteria to detect tax evasion.Conclusions One in six cigarette packs consumed in Pakistan could be illicit. These figures are far less than those propagated by the tobacco industry. Collecting packs from waste recycle stores is an efficient and valid method to estimate illicit cigarette trade.",
author = "Amina Khan and Fiona Dobbie and Kamran Siddiqi and Saeed Ansari and S. Abdullah and Romaina Iqbal and Zohaib Khan and Salman Sohail and Mona Kanaan and Ziauddin Islam and Rumana Huque and Melanie Boeckmann and Hana Ross",
note = "{\textcopyright} Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. This is an author-produced version of the published paper. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher{\textquoteright}s self-archiving policy. Further copying may not be permitted; contact the publisher for details",
year = "2021",
month = apr,
day = "15",
doi = "10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-056386",
language = "English",
journal = "Tobacco Control",
issn = "1468-3318",
publisher = "BMJ Publishing Group",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - Illicit Cigarette Trade in the Cities of Pakistan

T2 - Comparing Findings between the Consumer and Waste Recycle Store Surveys

AU - Khan, Amina

AU - Dobbie, Fiona

AU - Siddiqi, Kamran

AU - Ansari, Saeed

AU - Abdullah, S.

AU - Iqbal, Romaina

AU - Khan, Zohaib

AU - Sohail, Salman

AU - Kanaan, Mona

AU - Islam, Ziauddin

AU - Huque, Rumana

AU - Boeckmann, Melanie

AU - Ross, Hana

N1 - © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. This is an author-produced version of the published paper. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher’s self-archiving policy. Further copying may not be permitted; contact the publisher for details

PY - 2021/4/15

Y1 - 2021/4/15

N2 - Background Concerns about the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade have prevented the Government of Pakistan from increasing tobacco taxes. We estimated the proportion of illicit cigarettes sold in Pakistani cities. Moreover, we compared two methods for collecting cigarette packs and investigated if the illicit cigarette trade equates to tax evasion.Method We analysed cigarette packs collected from 10 cities of Pakistan using two methods: consumer survey based on a two-stage random sampling strategy to recruit adult smokers and photograph their cigarette packs and waste recycle store survey to purchase used cigarette packs. Cigarettes were considered illicit if any one of the following was absent from their packs: text and pictorial health warning, underage sale prohibition warning, retail price and manufacturer’s name. From the consumer survey, we also estimated the proportion of smokers who purchased loose cigarettes (illegal) and packs below the minimum retail price. Taxation officers (n=4) were consulted to assess their level of confidence in judging tax evasion using the above criteria.Results Out of 2416 cigarette packs in the consumer survey, 454 (17.8%; 95% CI 15.4% to 20.2%) were illicit. Similarly, out of 6213 packs from waste recycle shops, 1046 (16.8%; 95% CI 15.9% to 17.7%) were illicit; the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.473). Among consumers, 29.5% bought loose cigarettes and 13.8% paid less than the minimum retail price. The taxation officers considered the manufacturer’s name and retail price on cigarette packs as the most relevant criteria to detect tax evasion.Conclusions One in six cigarette packs consumed in Pakistan could be illicit. These figures are far less than those propagated by the tobacco industry. Collecting packs from waste recycle stores is an efficient and valid method to estimate illicit cigarette trade.

AB - Background Concerns about the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade have prevented the Government of Pakistan from increasing tobacco taxes. We estimated the proportion of illicit cigarettes sold in Pakistani cities. Moreover, we compared two methods for collecting cigarette packs and investigated if the illicit cigarette trade equates to tax evasion.Method We analysed cigarette packs collected from 10 cities of Pakistan using two methods: consumer survey based on a two-stage random sampling strategy to recruit adult smokers and photograph their cigarette packs and waste recycle store survey to purchase used cigarette packs. Cigarettes were considered illicit if any one of the following was absent from their packs: text and pictorial health warning, underage sale prohibition warning, retail price and manufacturer’s name. From the consumer survey, we also estimated the proportion of smokers who purchased loose cigarettes (illegal) and packs below the minimum retail price. Taxation officers (n=4) were consulted to assess their level of confidence in judging tax evasion using the above criteria.Results Out of 2416 cigarette packs in the consumer survey, 454 (17.8%; 95% CI 15.4% to 20.2%) were illicit. Similarly, out of 6213 packs from waste recycle shops, 1046 (16.8%; 95% CI 15.9% to 17.7%) were illicit; the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.473). Among consumers, 29.5% bought loose cigarettes and 13.8% paid less than the minimum retail price. The taxation officers considered the manufacturer’s name and retail price on cigarette packs as the most relevant criteria to detect tax evasion.Conclusions One in six cigarette packs consumed in Pakistan could be illicit. These figures are far less than those propagated by the tobacco industry. Collecting packs from waste recycle stores is an efficient and valid method to estimate illicit cigarette trade.

U2 - 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-056386

DO - 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-056386

M3 - Article

JO - Tobacco Control

JF - Tobacco Control

SN - 1468-3318

ER -