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Impacts and mitigation of excess diesel-related NO x emissions in 11 major vehicle markets

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JournalNature
DateAccepted/In press - 28 Feb 2017
DateE-pub ahead of print - 15 May 2017
DatePublished (current) - 25 May 2017
Issue number7655
Volume545
Number of pages5
Pages (from-to)467-471
Early online date15/05/17
Original languageEnglish

Abstract

Vehicle emissions contribute to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) and tropospheric ozone air pollution, affecting human health, crop yields and climate worldwide. On-road diesel vehicles produce approximately 20 per cent of global anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x), which are key PM 2.5 and ozone precursors. Regulated NO x emission limits in leading markets have been progressively tightened, but current diesel vehicles emit far more NO x under real-world operating conditions than during laboratory certification testing. Here we show that across 11 markets, representing approximately 80 per cent of global diesel vehicle sales, nearly one-third of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions and over half of on-road light-duty diesel vehicle emissions are in excess of certification limits. These excess emissions (totalling 4.6 million tons) are associated with about 38,000 PM 2.5 - and ozone-related premature deaths globally in 2015, including about 10 per cent of all ozone-related premature deaths in the 28 European Union member states. Heavy-duty vehicles are the dominant contributor to excess diesel NO x emissions and associated health impacts in almost all regions. Adopting and enforcing next-generation standards (more stringent than Euro 6/VI) could nearly eliminate real-world diesel-related NO x emissions in these markets, avoiding approximately 174,000 global PM 2.5 - and ozone-related premature deaths in 2040. Most of these benefits can be achieved by implementing Euro VI standards where they have not yet been adopted for heavy-duty vehicles.

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