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From the same journal

Income inequality and health: a causal review

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Income inequality and health : a causal review. / Pickett, Kate E.; Wilkinson, Richard G.

In: Social science and medicine, Vol. 128, 03.2015, p. 316-326.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Pickett, KE & Wilkinson, RG 2015, 'Income inequality and health: a causal review', Social science and medicine, vol. 128, pp. 316-326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.12.031

APA

Pickett, K. E., & Wilkinson, R. G. (2015). Income inequality and health: a causal review. Social science and medicine, 128, 316-326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.12.031

Vancouver

Pickett KE, Wilkinson RG. Income inequality and health: a causal review. Social science and medicine. 2015 Mar;128:316-326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.12.031

Author

Pickett, Kate E. ; Wilkinson, Richard G. / Income inequality and health : a causal review. In: Social science and medicine. 2015 ; Vol. 128. pp. 316-326.

Bibtex - Download

@article{abb5297d994344768c3827c864487f7c,
title = "Income inequality and health: a causal review",
abstract = "There is a very large literature examining income inequality in relation to health. Early reviews came to different interpretations of the evidence, though a large majority of studies reported that health tended to be worse in more unequal societies. More recent studies, not included in those reviews, provide substantial new evidence. Our purpose in this paper is to assess whether or not wider income differences play a causal role leading to worse health. We conducted a literature review within an epidemiological causal framework and inferred the likelihood of a causal relationship between income inequality and health (including violence) by considering the evidence as a whole. The body of evidence strongly suggests that income inequality affects population health and wellbeing. The major causal criteria of temporality, biological plausibility, consistency and lack of alternative explanations are well supported. Of the small minority of studies which find no association, most can be explained by income inequality being measured at an inappropriate scale, the inclusion of mediating variables as controls, the use of subjective rather than objective measures of health, or follow up periods which are too short. The evidence that large income differences have damaging health and social consequences is strong and in most countries inequality is increasing. Narrowing the gap will improve the health and wellbeing of populations.",
keywords = "Income distribution, Review, Population health, Causality",
author = "Pickett, {Kate E.} and Wilkinson, {Richard G.}",
note = "Copyright {\circledC} 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.",
year = "2015",
month = "3",
doi = "10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.12.031",
language = "English",
volume = "128",
pages = "316--326",
journal = "Social Science & Medicine",
issn = "0277-9536",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - Income inequality and health

T2 - Social Science & Medicine

AU - Pickett, Kate E.

AU - Wilkinson, Richard G.

N1 - Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PY - 2015/3

Y1 - 2015/3

N2 - There is a very large literature examining income inequality in relation to health. Early reviews came to different interpretations of the evidence, though a large majority of studies reported that health tended to be worse in more unequal societies. More recent studies, not included in those reviews, provide substantial new evidence. Our purpose in this paper is to assess whether or not wider income differences play a causal role leading to worse health. We conducted a literature review within an epidemiological causal framework and inferred the likelihood of a causal relationship between income inequality and health (including violence) by considering the evidence as a whole. The body of evidence strongly suggests that income inequality affects population health and wellbeing. The major causal criteria of temporality, biological plausibility, consistency and lack of alternative explanations are well supported. Of the small minority of studies which find no association, most can be explained by income inequality being measured at an inappropriate scale, the inclusion of mediating variables as controls, the use of subjective rather than objective measures of health, or follow up periods which are too short. The evidence that large income differences have damaging health and social consequences is strong and in most countries inequality is increasing. Narrowing the gap will improve the health and wellbeing of populations.

AB - There is a very large literature examining income inequality in relation to health. Early reviews came to different interpretations of the evidence, though a large majority of studies reported that health tended to be worse in more unequal societies. More recent studies, not included in those reviews, provide substantial new evidence. Our purpose in this paper is to assess whether or not wider income differences play a causal role leading to worse health. We conducted a literature review within an epidemiological causal framework and inferred the likelihood of a causal relationship between income inequality and health (including violence) by considering the evidence as a whole. The body of evidence strongly suggests that income inequality affects population health and wellbeing. The major causal criteria of temporality, biological plausibility, consistency and lack of alternative explanations are well supported. Of the small minority of studies which find no association, most can be explained by income inequality being measured at an inappropriate scale, the inclusion of mediating variables as controls, the use of subjective rather than objective measures of health, or follow up periods which are too short. The evidence that large income differences have damaging health and social consequences is strong and in most countries inequality is increasing. Narrowing the gap will improve the health and wellbeing of populations.

KW - Income distribution

KW - Review

KW - Population health

KW - Causality

U2 - 10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.12.031

DO - 10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.12.031

M3 - Article

VL - 128

SP - 316

EP - 326

JO - Social Science & Medicine

JF - Social Science & Medicine

SN - 0277-9536

ER -