By the same authors

From the same journal

Inhalation of VOCs from facial moisturizers and the influence of dose proximity

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review



Publication details

JournalIndoor air
DateAccepted/In press - 13 Oct 2021
DateE-pub ahead of print - 24 Nov 2021
DatePublished (current) - Jan 2022
Issue number1
Number of pages12
Early online date24/11/21
Original languageEnglish


Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from personal care products (PCPs) contribute to poor indoor air quality. Exposure to indoor VOCs is typically determined through ambient concentration measurements; however, for some PCPs the proximity of use to the nose and mouth may lead to disproportionately large inhaled doses. In this paper, we quantify emission factors for six common PCP ingredient VOCs (ethanol, 2-propanol, benzyl alcohol, 1,3-butanediol, t-butyl alcohol, and the grouping of monoterpenes as limonene) from 16 facial day-moisturizers using headspace analysis and selected ion flow-tube mass spectrometry. A wide range of emissions rates were observed across the range of products tested (e.g., ethanol 3.3–6.9 × 102 µg s−1 g[product]−1, limonene 1.3 × 10−1–4.1 × 10−1 µg s−1 g[product]−1). We use a mannequin head with reconstructed nose and mouth airways to sample VOCs from facial application at typical respiration volumes. A single facial application of moisturizer can lead to a much larger inhaled VOC dose than would be inhaled from typical indoor ambient air over 24 h (e.g., limonene up to ~×16 greater via facial application, ethanol up to ~×300). Emissions from facially applied PCPs typically decayed to background concentrations over periods ranging from 5 to 150 min.

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© 2021 The Authors


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