Insect gallers and their plant hosts: From omics data to systems biology

Caryn N. Oates, Katherine J. Denby, Alexander A. Myburg, Bernard Slippers, Sanushka Naidoo*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Gall-inducing insects are capable of exerting a high level of control over their hosts’ cellular machinery to the extent that the plant’s development,metabolism,chemistry,and physiology are all altered in favour of the insect. Many gallers are devastating pests in global agriculture and the limited understanding of their relationship with their hosts prevents the development of robust management strategies. Omics technologies are proving to be important tools in elucidating the mechanisms involved in the interaction as they facilitate analysis of plant hosts and insect effectors for which little or no prior knowledge exists. In this review,we examine the mechanisms behind insect gall development using evidence from omics-level approaches. The secretion of effector proteins and induced phytohormonal imbalances are highlighted as likely mechanisms involved in gall development. However,understanding how these components function within the system is far from complete and a number of questions need to be answered before this information can be used in the development of strategies to engineer or breed plants with enhanced resistance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1891
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 18 Nov 2016

Bibliographical note

© 2016 by the authors.


  • Effector
  • Gall induction
  • Galling insect
  • Omics data
  • Phytohormone

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