Integrating Dark Patterns into the 4Cs of Online Risk in the Context of Young People and Mobile Gaming Apps

Dan Fitton*, Beth T. Bell, Janet C. Read

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Mobile technologies potentially expose children and adolescents to increasing online risk. These risks take many forms and are widely categorized using the 4Cs: Content, Conduct, Contact, and Commerce. Commerce is the least developed category and, while it has significant overlap with what is known as Dark Design within the field of UX, amalgamation of Dark Design and the 4Cs has not yet been considered. Within this paper we integrate Dark Design into the 4Cs to provide a set of questions we call RIGA (Risk In Games Assessment) and use RIGA to identify potential risks to children and adolescents in free-to-play mobile gaming apps. The key contribution of this paper is the integration of contemporary understandings of Dark Design into the 4Cs framework, through the RIGA question set, which can support research and practitioner communities in identifying potential risk to young people present in mobile gaming apps.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHuman-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2021 - 18th IFIP TC 13 International Conference, Proceedings
EditorsCarmelo Ardito, Rosa Lanzilotti, Alessio Malizia, Alessio Malizia, Helen Petrie, Antonio Piccinno, Giuseppe Desolda, Kori Inkpen
Number of pages11
ISBN (Print)9783030856090
Publication statusPublished - 26 Aug 2021
Event18th IFIP TC 13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, INTERACT 2021 - Virtual, Online
Duration: 30 Aug 20213 Sept 2021

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume12935 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference18th IFIP TC 13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, INTERACT 2021
CityVirtual, Online

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.


  • Children
  • Dark Design
  • Dark patterns
  • Games
  • Online risk

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